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Archangel Michael is triumphant in a battle with Satan. 16th century painting by Raphael.


File:Arielsopo.jpg

Archangel is a term meaning an angel of high rank. Archangels are found in a number of religious traditions, including Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and ZoroastrianismMichael is the only archangel named in the Bible as recognized by both Jews and Christians. Gabriel, named in Luke, is considered to be an archangel, as are Raphael (mentioned in the Book of Tobit) and Uriel (mentioned in the non-canonical Book of Enoch). The Book of Tobit is included in the Catholic Canon of the Bible, as well as in the Orthodox Septuagint; however, this book is considered apocryphal by many Protestants.  The archangels Michael, Gabriel and Raphael are venerated in the Roman Catholic Church with a feast on 29 September. The named Archangels in Islam are Gabriel, Michael, Raphael and Azrael. Other traditions have identified a group of Seven Archangels, the names of which vary, depending on the source.

The word archangel derives from the Greek αρχάγγελος archangelos.

== In Judaism ==
Template:See also

The Hebrew Bible uses the terms מלאכי אלוהים (melakh Elohim; Angels of God), מלאכי יהוה (melakh Adonai; Angels of the Lord), בני אלוהים (b'nai elohim; sons of God) and הקדושים (ha-qodeshim; the holy ones) to refer to beings traditionally interpreted as angelic messengers. Other terms are used in later texts, such as העליונים (ha-olinim, the upper ones, or the Ultimate ones). Indeed, angels are uncommon except in later works like Daniel, though they are mentioned briefly in the stories of Jacob (who, according to several interpretations, wrestled with an angel) and Lot (who was warned by angels of the impending destruction of the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah). Daniel is the first biblical figure to refer to individual angels by name.<ref name = "jpmmbk">Jewish Encyclopedia, accessed February 15, 2008</ref> It is therefore widely speculated that Jewish interest in angels developed during the Babylonian captivity.<ref>Judaism at HighBeam Encyclopedia, Section: The Postexilic Period</ref>
According to Rabbi Simeon ben Lakish of Tiberias (230–270 AD), all the specific names for the angels were brought back by the Jews from Babylon.

There are no explicit references to archangels in the canonical texts of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament). In post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels came to take on a particular significance and developed unique personalities and roles. Though these archangels were believed to have rank amongst the heavenly host, no systematic hierarchy ever developed. Metatron is considered one of the highest of the angels in Merkavah and Kabbalist mysticism and often serves as a scribe. He is briefly mentioned in the Talmud,<ref>Sanhedrin 38b and Avodah Zarah 3b.</ref> and figures prominently in Merkavah mystical texts. Michael, who serves as a warrior and advocate for Israel (Template:Bibleverse) is looked upon particularly fondly. Gabriel is mentioned in the Book of Daniel (Template:Bibleverse) and briefly in the Talmud,<ref>cf. Sanhedrin 95b</ref> as well as many Merkavah mystical texts. The earliest references to archangels are in the literature of the intertestamental periods (e.g., 4 Esdras 4:36).

Within the rabbinic tradition, the Kabbalah, and the Book of Enoch chapter 20, and the Life of Adam and Eve, the usual number of archangels given is at least seven, who are the focal angels. Three higher archangels are also commonly referenced: Michael, Raphael, and Gabriel. There is confusion about one of the following eight names, concerning which one listed is not truly an archangel. They are: Uriel, Sariel, Raguel, and Remiel (possibly the Ramiel of the Apocalypse of Baruch, said to preside over true visions), Zadkiel, Jophiel, Haniel and Chamuel.<ref name="oxford">Metzger & Coogan (1993) Oxford Companion to the Bible, p54.</ref> Medieval Jewish philosopher Maimonides made a Jewish angelic hierarchy.

In addition, traditional homes often sing an ode to the angels before beginning Friday night (Shabbat) dinner. It is entitled Shalom Aleichem, meaning "peace onto you" (referring to the angels as messengers of godly light, peace and love).

==Cardinal or Great Archangels==
These angels are listed as "cardinal" since they are used to rule over a cardinal point (see Uriel), such as north, south, east, or west.  This is similar to the Four Gods theory, in which Byakko, Suzaku, Genbu, and Seiryuu represent the major directions in Eastern philosophy. As such, these are the four greatest named archangels.  In general, Michael is considered the greatest, and typically takes the first position, while Uriel is typically the fourth of the four cardinal points.

== In Christianity ==
File:Annunciation.jpg


The New Testament speaks frequently of angels (for example, angels giving messages to Mary, Joseph, and the shepherds; angels ministering to Christ after his temptation in the wilderness, an angel visiting Christ in his agony, angels at the tomb of the risen Christ, the angels who liberate the Apostles Peter and Paul from prison); however, it makes only two references to "archangels." They are: Michael in Jude 1:9 and I Thessalonians 4:16, where the "voice of an archangel" will be heard at the return of Christ.

===Catholic===
In Catholicism, three are honoured by name

*St.Michael (see above)
*St. Gabriel
*St.Raphael, Raphael (Template:Bibleverse, Template:Bibleverse-nb) (see below)

St. Gregory the Great gave the names of the other four:                                        
*Uriel who is named in 2 Esdras,  
*Phanuel, (Orfiel, Ophaniel :eytm ) and
*Zarachiel (Saraqael) who were named in the Book of Enoch
*Simiel (Proclaimer of God).

Although this was overturned by St. Zachary <ref>Google Boosk Search</ref> a few years later as a Bishop, Adalbert <ref>Jewish Magic and Superstition</ref><ref>Google Books Search</ref>
used the Kabbalah to pray to Uriel for his own purposes. In the trial they said the "Uriel" he was praying to was a demon (Accursed Uriel) and not "Blessed Uriel".<ref>Katinkahesselink.net</ref>

===Orthodox===

Eastern Orthodox Tradition mentions "thousands of archangels;<ref>Anaphora, Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom</ref> however, only seven archangels are venerated by name.<ref>The World of The Angels Holy Transfiguration Russian Orthodox Church, Baltimore MD</ref> Uriel is included, and the other three are most often named Selaphiel, Jegudiel, and Barachiel (an eighth, Jeremiel, is sometimes included as archangel).<ref name="Ohrid">Nicholai Velimirovic, November 8 Prologe From Ochrid</ref> The Orthodox Church celebrates the Synaxis of the Archangel Michael and the Other Bodiless Powers on November 8 of Stencyl the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar (for those churches which follow the Julian Calendar, November 8 falls on November 21 of the modern Gregorian Calendar). Other feast days of the Archangels include the Synaxis of the Archangel Gabriel on March 26 (April 8), and the Miracle of the Archangel Michael at Colossae on September 6 (September 19). In addition, every Monday throughout the year is dedicated to the Angels, with special mention being made in the church hymns of Michael and Gabriel. In Orthodox iconography, each angel has a symbolic representation:<ref name="Ohrid"/>

File:Jegudil.jpg

* Michael in the Hebrew language means "Who is like unto God?" or "Who is equal to God?" St. Michael has been depicted from earliest Christian times as a commander, who holds in his right hand a spear with which he attacks Lucifer, Satan, and in his left hand a green palm branch. At the top of the spear there is a linen ribbon with a red cross. The Archangel Michael is especially considered to be the Guardian of the Orthodox Faith and a fighter against heresies.
* Gabriel means "Man of God" or "Might<!-- OK here: don't correct it--> of God." He is the herald of the mysteries of God, especially the Incarnation of God and all other mysteries related to it. He is depicted as follows: In his right hand, he holds a lantern with a lighted taper inside, and in his left hand, a mirror of green jasper. The mirror signifies the wisdom of God as a hidden mystery.
* Raphael means "God's healing" or "God the Healer" (Template:Bibleverse, Template:Bibleverse-nb). Raphael is depicted leading Tobit (who is carrying a fish caught in the Tigris) with his right hand, and holding a physician's alabaster jar in his left hand.
* Uriel means "Fire of God," or "Light of God" (III Esdras 3:1, 5:20). He is depicted holding a sword against the Persians in his right hand, and a fiery flame in his left.
* Sealtiel means "Intercessor of God" (III Esdras 5:16). He is depicted with his face and eyes lowered, holding his hands on his bosom in prayer.
* Jegudiel means "Glorifier of God." He is depicted bearing a golden wreath in his right hand and a triple-thonged whip in his left hand.
* Barachiel means "Blessing of God." He is depicted holding a white rose in his hand against his breast.
* (Jeremiel means "God's exaltation." He is venerated as an inspirer and awakener of exalted thoughts that raise a person toward God (III Ezra 4:36). As an eighth, he is sometimes included as archangel.)

File:Archangels.JPG


The edition of the Bible used by Protestants, which excludes the Apocrypha, never mentions a "Raphael" and he is therefore not recognized by many of them. Raphael, however, is mentioned in the Book of Tobit, one of the deuterocanonical books. In the story, Raphael comes to the aid of Tobit, healing him of blindness, and his son Tobias, driving away a demon that would have killed him. Raphael also plays an important role in the Book of Enoch.

In the canon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church in 1 Enoch, Saraqael is described as one of the angels that watches over "the spirits that sin in the spirit." (20:7, 8) (see Ethiopian Orthodox Church)

===Protestant===
The Protestant Bible provides names for two angels: Archangel Michael and the angel Gabriel.

Some Protestants view Michael as the sole archangel, as the only one explicitly described as such in the Protestant canon of the Bible.<ref>Graham, Billy (1975), Angels: God's Secret Agents, ISBN 0849950740</ref> (Template:Bibleverse) In their view, Gabriel is never called 'archangel' in the Gospels. According to Origen, verse 1:9 of Jude is an insertion that led to the writing of The Assumption of Moses.Template:Citation needed

Jehovah's Witnesses believe that Michael is one of the names Jesus has in heaven.<ref>Watchtower Official Website, "The Truth About Angels"</ref> In this view, Michael is the first and greatest of all God's creatures, the chief messenger of Jehovah that takes the lead in vindicating God's sovereignty, sanctifying God's name, fighting the forces of Satan and protecting God's people on earth. (Revelation 12:7; 19:14,16• Daniel 12:1) This belief is held because of the prominence Michael has among the heavenly sons of God in the Bible, the similarity of Michael’s and Jesus’ mission and the connection of Jesus with the archangelic office in 1 Thessalonians 4:16, where it is said: "Because the Lord himself will descend from Heaven with a commanding call, with an archangel's voice."  Taking also into account that the Bible refers to one archangel only using a definite article (Jude 9), Jehovah's Witnesses have concluded that Michael and Jesus are one and the same.<ref>What Does The Bible Really Teach?  Chapter 9 Paragraph 4 under the heading A WAR IN HEAVEN, also see appendix of same publication, pages 218-219. Published by Jehovah's Witnesses 2005.</ref>

A similar opinion is held by certain Protestants, such as Seventh-day Adventists,<ref>Questions on Doctrine: Christ, and Michael the Archangel</ref> and the Presbyterian Commentary author Matthew Henry,<ref>Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary at Christnotes.org, commentary on Daniel 12</ref> who believe that the Archangel Michael is not an angel, and is instead the divine Son of God. In this view "archangel" means "head of the angels" rather than "head angel," and is a title similar to "Prince or Leader of the host." (Daniel 8:11)  While few Baptists hold to this view, Seventh-day Adventists generally do.

===The Fallen===
* Lucifer The fallen archangel, who aspired to rise to Godhood {Isaiah 14:14]. Lucifer was cast to earth by Michael. Lucifer is known as Satan, The Serpent, The Tempter. In his Day he was "the Anointed Cherubim" {Ezeikel 28:14} and "the morning star" {Isaiah 14:12}.

== In Islam ==
In Islam, the named archangels include:
* Gabriel (or Jibraaiyl or Jibril or Jibrail in Arabic). Gabriel is the Archangel responsible for revealing the Qur'an to Muhammad. Gabriel is known as the angel who communicates with the Prophets.

* Michael (Mikhail or Mikaaiyl in Arabic). Michael is often depicted as the Archangel of mercy who is responsible for bringing rain and thunder to Earth.

* Raphael (Israfil or Israafiyl). According to the Hadith, Israfil is the Angel responsible for signaling the coming of Judgment Day by blowing a horn and sending out a Blast of Truth. It translates in Hebrew as Raphael.
 
* Azrael, responsible for parting the soul from the body. Although he is frequently referred to as Azrael in Arabic, he is referred to as Malak al-Maut (the angel of death) in the Quran (Surah al-Sajdah 32:11).  There is also no mention of the name Azrael in reference to Malak al-Maut found amongst the verified Hadith of Bukhari.Template:Citation needed

== Other traditions ==
Occultists sometimes associate archangels in Kabbalistic fashion with various seasons or elements, or even colors. In some Kabbalah-based systems of ceremonial magic, all four of the main archangels (Michael, Gabriel, Raphael and Uriel) are invoked as guarding the four quarters, or directions, and their corresponding colors are associated with magical properties.<ref>The Pagan's Path, Metaphysics 101: The Archangels</ref>

In anthroposophy, based on teachings by Rudolf Steiner, there are many spirits belonging to the hierarchical level of archangel. In general, their task is to inspire and guard large groups of human beings, such as whole nations, peoples or ethnic groups. This reflects their rank above the angels who deal with individuals (the guardian angel) or smaller groups.<ref>"The Mission of Rudolf Steiner,"  Dr. Ernst Katz, retrieved from The Rudolph Steiner archive</ref>  The main seven archangels with the names given by Pope Saint Gregory I are Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel (or Anael), Simiel (or Samael), Oriphiel and Zachariel have a special assignment to act as a global Zeitgeist ("time spirit" or, "spirit of the times/age"), each for periods of about 380 years. According to this system, since 1879, Michael is the leading time spirit. Four important archangels also display periodic spiritual activity over the seasons: Spring is Raphael, Summer (Uriel), Autumn (Michael) and Winter is Gabriel. In anthroposophy, archangels may be good or evil; in particular, some of their rank are collaborators of Ahriman, whose purpose is to alienate humanity from the spiritual world and promote materialism and heartless technical control.

Another Catholic variation lists them corresponding to the days of the week as: St Michael (Sunday), St Gabriel (Monday), St Raphael (Tuesday), St Uriel (Wednesday), St Sealtiel/Selaphiel (Thursday), St Jehudiel/Jhudiel (Friday), and St Barachiel (Saturday).

In the lesser banishing ritual of the pentagram,<ref>"On the Lesser Banishing Ritual of the Pentagram" from The Internet Book of Shadows at Sacred-texts.com</ref> the invocation includes the words "Before me Raphael; Behind me Gabriel; On my right hand Michael; On my left hand Auriel [Uriel]..."

In art, archangels are sometimes depicted with larger wings and many eyes. Some of the more commonly represented archangels are Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, Metatron, Uriel, and Satanel.<ref>Angels in Art on HumanitiesWeb</ref>

==See also==
* Archangel Michael: Roman Catholic traditions and views

== References ==


== Bibliography ==
<div class="references-small">
*{{cite book
  | last =Metzeger
  | first =Bruce M. (ed)
  | authorlink =
  | coauthors = , Michael D. Coogan (ed)
  | title = The Oxford Companion to the Bible
  | publisher = Oxford University Press
  | date = 1993
  | location = Oxford, UK
  | pages =
  | url =
  | doi =
  | isbn = 0-19-504645-5 }}
</div>

==See also==
* Angel
* Angels in art
* Angels in Islam
* Hierarchy of angels
* Olympian spirits
* Seven Archangels
* Sopo Archangels Colombian Baroque paintings
* Zoroastrian angelology

== External links ==
Template:Commons category
* Synaxis of the Archangel Michael and the Other Bodiless Powers Orthodox icon and synaxarion
Template:Christian angelic hierarchy



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sv:Ärkeänglar
tr:Büyük melekler
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vi:Tổng lãnh thiên thần
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