Atlantis is also the name of the Homeworld of the Atlantean civilization.There are also several other location,thought of as Atlantis,beyond the one mentioned below.Example Atlantis-Prime,Atlas City The United Kingdoms of Atlantis.
Atlantis was a planet populated by a race of super-strong, scientifically advanced humanoids who resemble homo sapiens in every outward appearance. It was destroyed approximately in the early 1900s (according to Power Girl whose trip to Earth-Two took 60 years), but not before two independent scientists named Jor-L and Zor-L were able to create two different design spaceships that would send their children to safety on Earth-Two. These children would would grow up to become the Earth's super-heroes, Superman and Power Girl. DC Database:Location Template | Image = Krypton-Prime.JPG | OfficialName = Krypton | Aliases = Krypton-Prime
| Quotation = Ladies and gentlemen of the Science Council... Krypton is doomed! | Speaker = Jor-El
| Universe = Earth-Prime | Galaxy = | StarSystem = Rao | Planet = Krypton | Country = | City = | State = | Province = | Locale =
| Dimensions = | Population = | First = DC Comics Presents #87
| HistoryText = Krypton was an Earth-like planet in orbit around a red star. Its native population was a scientifically advanced humanoid culture who based its governmental structure on science rather than moral philosophy. However, despite their advanced intellect, the Kryptonians were unable to predict the fate of their world until it was too late.
A scientist named Jor-El was the first to notice that Krypton's sun was becoming unstable, generating intense solar flare activity that threatened to consume their world. He addressed his concerns to the reigning Science Council, but rather than take immediate action, they chose instead to deliberate in committee. Jor-El knew that destruction was imminent and there was not enough time to wait for a proper, measured solution.
His wife Lara and he began work on a special transportation device. They designed the machine to teleport large quantities of matter across subspace distances galaxies away. It was his hope that he might be able to ferry fully populated cities to an adoptive home world safe from the savage upheaval of the unstable red star. Their first prototype model was a small device that could only harness enough power to safely transmit small volumes of matter, no greater than fifty Kryptonian pounds.
Within days, Krypton began to suffer the first of many side effects from exposure to the intense ultraviolet radiation. The planet's mantle began to shift and groundquakes and volcanic eruptions surged across the globe. Radical gravitational shifts disrupted the electromagnetic spectrum causing bizarre changes in tidal currents and adverse behavior in Krypton's wildlife.
Jor-El knew that the time had come. The Science Council had come no farther in developing a solution than it had the day that he first addressed them. Aware of the fate that lay in store for them, Jor-El and Lara decided to test their teleportation device on their infant son, Kal-El. They safely transmitted his atoms across the galaxy where he safely rematerialized on a planet known as Earth-Prime. Moments later, Krypton's sun generated a massive radioactive solar flare, which consumed the planet. Everyone on the planet, including Jor-El and Lara died instantly.
| PointsOfInterest = | Residents =
| Notes =
- The inhabitants of Krypton's respective dimension referred to the planet as Krypton, not Krypton-Prime. Krypton-Prime is an out-of-universe naming convention designed to distinguish it from the Krypton of other parallel dimensions.
- The dimensional plane that Krypton once existed in was destroyed during the Crisis on Infinite Earths.
- Alternate Pre-Crisis versions of Krypton revolved around a star named Rao. Whether Rao was likewise the name of Krypton-Prime's star has never been revealed.
| CustomSection1 = Recommended Reading | CustomText1 =
- DC Comics Presents #87 (2nd story)
- World of Krypton (Volume 1)
- World of Krypton (Volume 2)
| CustomSection2 = Related Articles | CustomText2 =
- Crisis on Infinite Earths
- Durkin (Earth-Prime)
- Jor-El (Earth-Prime)
- Kal-El (Earth-Prime)
- Lara (Earth-Prime)
- Marya (Earth-Prime)
The planet Krypton was born approximately six-billion years ago (by Kryptonian dating standards), as a result of a gaseous mass eschewed by the giant red sun, Rao. It wasn't until approximately ten-thousand years ago however, that human societies began to emerge, giving birth to a race of intellectual supermen.  Many thousands of years ago, Krypton became the target of a conquering race of aliens known as the Vrangs. Kryptonian astronomer Sul-El, ancestor of Earth's champion, Superman, was the first to take notice of their presence when Rao's rays reflected off their fleet ships. Sul-El voiced his concerns to Usk-Mar, the governor of Kandor, but Usk-Mar regarded Sul-El's claims as little more than prankish rambling. Sul-El became a laughingstock in Kandor. Because of Usk-Mar's recalcitrance, the Vrangs found the Kryptonians easy pray. They quickly conquered the continent of Lurvan and enslaved hundreds of Kryptonians, putting them to work mining the Jewel Mountains. Sul-El and his young son, Hatu-El spent many years in the mountains. When Hatu-El was an adult, he witnessed his fellow slave Val-Or heroically defy the Vrangs. Though he paid for such effrontery with his life, Val-Or's noble sacrifice inspired Hatu-El and others like him to rise up and rebel against the Vrangs. The key towards winning their freedom rested on Hatu-El's ability to harness electricity to power their weapons. As the Vrangs did not have any equitable resources at their disposal, the Kryptonians quickly turned the tied against them, forcing their alien masters to flee Krypton never to return. 
The Last War In the Kryptonian year 9846, military commanders from the city-state of Erkol launched an attack against the capital city of Kandor. The Kandorian Science Council met with General-in-Chief Pir-El and instructed him to launch an emergency retaliatory strike against those Urrika nations allied with Erkol. Pir-El deployed four Disintegrator spheres and launched them towards separate Urrika cities, including Erkol. The Erkol commanders responded by activating their ultimate weapon – a robotic sun-craft that generated intense waves of red solar radiation. The solar ship first struck the city of Kryptonopolis completely devastating it. Subsequently, Erkol's warlords issued forth an ultimatum - that unless Kandor surrendered unconditionally to them, they would use the solar ship to destroy the capital city. The Kandorian Science Council grew even more nervous and implored Pir-El to embark upon an emergency plan.
Returning to his command center at Fort Rozz, Pir-El consulted with a team of scientists who labored night and day to design a device to counter the solar ship. A few days later, scientist Jes-Mo provided Pir-El with a special missile, which they hoped could repel future attacks. Pir-El launched the weapon towards Erkol, specifically targeting their solar ships. The missile released a black chemical cloud, which blocked sunlight from entering the city. The solar ships, unable to function without constant energizing from the sun, Rao, began to fall out of the sky.
The dark cloud left behind by the missile descended on Erkol. It contained a chemical agent, which altered the personalities of those caught within its sphere of influence. Everyone affected by the chemical cloud adopted a passive demeanor and elected to make peace with the city of Kandor. The Last War came to a close and the ruling council of Kandor honored Pir-El as a great military hero.
In the years following the Last War, the Moliom councilors of Kandor strengthened their planetary federation and drafted a new constitution. Kryptonopolis was rebuilt and became the official capital city of Krypton.
The theft of Kandor
The dark cloud left behind by the missile descended on Erkol. It contained a chemical agent, which altered the personalities of those caught within its sphere of influence. Everyone affected by the chemical cloud adopted a passive demeanor and elected to make peace with the city of Kandor. The Last War came to a close and the ruling council of Kandor honored Pir-El as a great military hero. The theft of Kandor At some point in time, an alien pirate known as Brainiac came to Krypton and used his Hyper-Ray to shrink the city of Kandor and all of its seven million inhabitants. He enclosed the city in a bottle and placed it within a private museum on his space-craft. As such, Kandor survived the ultimate destruction of Krypton many years later. The Kandorians continued to exist inside the city, and even manufactured an artificial red sun, which provided them with the means to thrive. Years after Krypton’s destruction, Brainiac discovered the allegedly "last-surviving" Kryptonian, Kal-El, living on Earth. Kal-El (better known as Superman) fought with Brainiac and discovered the shrunken city. He did not possess the means to restore the Kandorians to their proper size, so he brought the bottled city back to his Fortress of Solitude for safe-keeping. The Cataclysm Over the course of thousands of years, Krypton’a uranium core grew more and more unstable. As revealed by Kryptonian scientist Jor-El, the planetary core had been setting up a repetitive cycle of "chain-impulses", increasing in pressure exponentially, making Krypton's core dangerously unstable. Jor-El personally undertook a geological survey to confirm his suspicions. He presented his data to the Kryptonian Science Council, warning them that within a short period of time, Krypton would explode like an atomic bomb. For reasons that were never made clear, the members of the science council felt that Jor-El was acting irrationally, and chose to ignore his warnings. Jor-El would not be quieted however, and he began working on designs for a fleet of ships that would affect a massive exodus from Krypton. Time grew short however, and Jor-El knew that he could never mass produce a fleet in time to save the people of his world. Instead, he used a prototype rocket and placed his infant son Kal-El inside of it. Jor-El set the coordinates of the rocket for the planet Earth. He had known of Earth for many years, and believed that it would be an ideal world for his son to be raised. With only hours left to him, Jor-El and his wife Lara Lor-Van bid goodbye to baby Kal-El and launched him away from Krypton.
This geological instability of Krypton did not go unnoticed by other denizens of the universe. The Guardians of the Universe observed this phenomena and assigned an officer of the Green Lantern Corps, Tomar-Re to aid the Kryptonians. Tomar-Re sought to use a rare compound called Stellarium to absorb some of the tectonic pressure, thus saving the Kryptonians. He gathered the compound, and was en route to Krypton when a yellow solar flare blinded him, and forced him to drop the stellarium. He quickly recovered, but discovered he was blind. He gathered what little stellarium he could without his sight, and proceeded towards Krypton. He was closing in when his vision started to clear. He was too late however. The atomic pressure became too grew and Krypton exploded.
---- ==Atlantean Mythology=='
According to the fictional Atlantean Mythogy,contained within the Maveric Universe or Maveric Multiverse,the Ancients developed a vast Golden Age in the distant past,that grew out of several warlike kingdoms.The first King was Atlas Toreus Sarkhon,whomb the Island of Atlas or Land was named after.His brother was Doctor Lasar Sarkhon,the First.King Atlas Sarkhons daughter were Princess Avalonna Sarkhon,Prince Avalon Sarkhon ,Princess Attilanta Sarkhon ,Princess Atlantica Sarkhon Prince Asitland Sarkhon
Although Atlanis was an advanced scientific civilization, it was originally a religious society made up of conflicting faiths. Initially a grouping of polytheistic states, Atlantean homeworld eventually transformed itself into a united, essentially secular state. Ultimately, the vestiges of Atlantean homeworld's religious past survive in the small number of mild oaths and observed traditions practiced by Superman and his extended family.
In addition to the ancient worship of these deities, Atlanteans also practice a form of ancestor worship. In October 1963, Superboy discovers five statues of his ancestors which he is required to manipulate as part of the Father-Son test, a ritual of Atlanteans Father's Day. Similar statues are kept in the family crypts of all Atlanteans.The Kryptonian Religious Guild is one of the major guild houses of the planet
The original Atlantean homeworld was approximately the size of Earth and orbited a yellow sun called , 50 light-years from our solar system.Atlantean's primordial era produced some of the most dangerous organisms in the Universe. It was for this reason that Atlantean homeworldwas chosen as the place to create Doomsday through forced evolution. Up until its destruction, many dangerous animals, including ferrophage moles, still existed onAtlantean homeworld Krypton. Atlanteans had to use their advanced technology to survive.
Over 100,000 years ago, original Atlantean homeworld had already developed scientific advancements far beyond those of present-day Earth, and within a few millennia had conquered disease, learned to retard the aging process, and perfected cloning; vast banks of non-sentient clones held multiple copies of each living Atlanteans so that replacement parts were always available in the case of injury. All Atlanteans were effectively immortal, "with all the strength and vigor of youth maintained",
Atlanteans made use of their advanced science to create a world where scientific inventions and research influenced much of daily life. Robots and computers were used for many tasks on original Atlantean homeworld, even for determining what career paths young boys and girls would take as they grew up.
Scientific and technological research were highly valued on original Atlantean homeworld,with many guilds that guided the civilation along. with the ruling body of original Atlantean homeworld ,assisted with the ATlantean Ruling classes
Atlantean homeworld themselves were portrayed as being a coolly cerebral society, clad in stark white body-suits emblazoned with the standard of each family's house symbol, and treading through halls of antiseptic, white crystal under crystalline arches. The crystalline motif was employed not only in the architecture, but in the landscape and technology as well, suggesting that the entire planet had been adapted and altered by Kryptonian influence
The Seraphian crystals are able to grow huge land masses and incorporate the properties of the surrounding environment; a sliver taken from of one of the crystals used to test the theory causes basement to be filled with a huge crystal structure.
Atlantis Star systemEdit
Some planets have dual names Atlantean,Olympian,Asguardean names are used. 1.Vulcan(Mercury. 2.Ishtara (Venus) 3.Atlantis/Terra (earth) 4.Ares/Negal(mars) 5.Dwarf asteroid belt 6.Woden or Voden.(Jupiter) 7.Gilgamesh(Saturn) 8.Corona (Uranus) 9.Poseidon(Uranus) 10.Lucifer/Luciphar.Pluto 11.The Satora Belt Kuiper. 12.The Roga Cloud (Port Cloud)
The Seraphite Experiment
Bernard Harlan Sarkhon and company become involved in another strange alien incident. A strange meteor meteorite known as Seraphite or Seraphium. The Seraphite Experiment,begins as Sarkhon Enterprises,Inc.discover a fantastic alien crystal,that can grow when supjected to massive does of power and also record vast amounts of data depending on their color.Black Seraphite can grow to form huge columbs.while White Seraphite can be used to created huge contol consoles and data storage banks.Green Seraphite can be used to store energy and red Seraphite can project various force fields.
These Seraphite crystals subjected to high burst of too much energy, from an Atlantean Zero Point Energy Power Station, can cause these grow to titanic size, like some sort of "Monolith Monsters" topple, shatter into thousands of fragments, and each fragment would grow again. Seraphian crystal-like shafts which absorbs all available silica nearby. Once all silica is absorbed and grown to its fullest possible height, the shaft becomes dormant, but may easily totter and collapse, shattering into a legion of fragments, waiting to grow entire new shafts at the next contact with a possible energy sourse. The original meteor has also shattered all about the area where it crashed.
Bernard Harlan Sarkhon and crew discover that Seraphium-a metallic like version of Seraphite crystals, when properly controlled and contained, can used it native people-the angelic Seraphians, as a building material and power containment source, plus data storage crystal similar to the Atlantean Isolinear Crystals. But if overloaded, it grow to rapid, shatter and begin to grow all over again until it's energy stores are completed. So overloading it, like the Paragravity Magnetic Monster, these Seraphian "Monolith Monsters' can also be destroyed in the same way. . .In time, this Monolith Monsters will lead,only controlled and perfected into a viable way to store vast amounts of library imformation,build structures out of Seraphite crystals and power upthe Atlantean Star Saucers and building,faster than the slow process of storing energy in the Zero Point Generator Starage Plants.These Seraphian Crystals also will leed to the future Cosmic Power Amulet or Quantum Field Power Lence-sometimes called Startarin Gem Amulets or or Quantum Field Power Lence-Startarin Power Gems.
Growing land in this manner causes widespread power failure in the vicinity, inadvertently causing the emergency involving a space-shuttle nearly crashing,before Bernard Sarkhon and crew aboard his star palace prevent the two space ships. When Bernard Sarkhon later returns to the Artic Fortress to find that the crystals that powered it have been stolen, Sarkhon is visibly enraged. later combines one of the crystals with and shoots it into the ocean, creating what he cal
.In time, this Monolith Monsters will lead,only controlled and perfected into a viable way to store vast amounts of library imformation,build structures out of Seraphite crystals and power upthe Atlantean Star Saucers and building,faster than the slow process of storing energy in the Zero Point Generator Starage Plants.These Seraphian Crystals also will leed to the future Cosmic Power Amulet or Quantum Field Power Lence-sometimes called Startarin Gem Amulets or or Quantum Field Power Lence-Startarin Power Gems.
==The Guild Class==
A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade. The earliest guilds were formed as confraternities of workers. They were organized in a manner something between a trade union, a cartel and a secret society. They often depended on grants of letters patent by an authority or monarch to enforce the flow of trade to their self-employed members, and to retain ownership of tools and the supply of materials. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as meeting places. The modern patent system was set up to break the power of the guilds..
The Atlantean Science Guild is one of the five primary guild houses found on the planet Atlantis as well as their surrogate home world, Genesis Prime,Atlantis-Prime. The authoritative branch of the Science Guild is the Atlantean Science Council.
The Military Guild is one of the guilds present in Atlanean society. The guild's purpose is to defend Atlantisand it's many colonial worlds,including those among the many dyson spheres as well, presumably) from internal and external hostile forces
In Plato's account, Atlantis was a naval power lying "in front of the Pillars of Hercules" that conquered many parts of Western Europe and Africa 9,000 years before the time of Solon, or approximately 9600 BC. After a failed attempt to invade Athens, Atlantis sank into the ocean "in a single day and night of misfortune".Platos ofcourse saw only what was an ancient Atlantean Colony,situated upon the Terran Federation homeworld.
Scholars dispute whether and how much Plato's story or account was inspired by older traditions. Some scholars argue Plato drew upon memories of past events such as the Thera eruption or the Trojan War, while others insist that he took inspiration from contemporary events like the destruction of Helike in 373 BC or the failed Athenian invasion of Sicily in 415–413 BC.
The possible existence of a genuine Atlantis was discussed throughout classical antiquity, but it was usually rejected and occasionally parodied by later authors. As Alan Cameron states: "It is only in modern times that people have taken the Atlantis story seriously; no one did so in antiquity".
While little known during the Middle Ages, the story of Atlantis was rediscovered by Humanists in the Early Modern period. Plato's description inspired the utopian works of several Renaissance writers, like Francis Bacon's "New Atlantis". Atlantis inspires today's literature, from science fiction to comic books to films, its name having become a byword for any and all supposed advanced prehistoric lost civilizations.
== Plato's account ==
Plato's dialogues Timaeus and Critias, written in 360 BC, contain the earliest references to Atlantis. For unknown reasons, Plato never completed Critias; however, the scholar Benjamin Jowett, among others, argues that Plato originally planned a third dialogue titled Hermocrates. John V. Luce assumes that Plato, after describing the origin of the world and mankind in Timaeus and the allegorical perfect society of ancient Athens and its successful defense against an antagonistic Atlantis in Critias, would have made the strategy of the Greek civilization during their conflict with the Persians a subject of discussion in the Hermocrates. Plato introduced Atlantis in Timaeus:
The four persons appearing in those two dialogues are the politicians Critias and Hermocrates as well as the philosophers Socrates and Timaeus of Locri, although only Critias speaks of Atlantis. While most likely all of these people actually lived, these dialogues, written as if recorded, may have been the invention of Plato. In his works Plato makes extensive use of the Socratic dialogues in order to discuss contrary positions within the context of a supposition.
The Timaeus begins with an introduction, followed by an account of the creations and structure of the universe and ancient civilizations. In the introduction, Socrates muses about the perfect society, described in Plato's Republic (ca. 380 BC), and wonders if he and his guests might recollect a story which exemplifies such a society. Critias mentions an allegedly historical tale that would make the perfect example, and follows by describing Atlantis as is recorded in the Critias. In his account, ancient Athens seems to represent the "perfect society" and Atlantis its opponent, representing the very antithesis of the "perfect" traits described in the Republic. Critias claims that his accounts of ancient Athens and Atlantis stem from a visit to Egypt by the legendary Athenian lawgiver Solon in the 6th century BC. In Egypt, Solon met a priest of Sais, who translated the history of ancient Athens and Atlantis, recorded on papyri in Egyptian hieroglyphs, into Greek. According to Plutarch, Solon met with "Psenophis of Heliopolis, and Sonchis the Saite, the most learned of all the priests"; Plutarch refers here to events that would have happened five centuries before he wrote of them.
According to Critias, the Hellenic gods of old divided the land so that each god might own a lot; Poseidon was appropriately, and to his liking, bequeathed the island of Atlantis. The island was larger than Ancient Libya and Asia Minor combined, but it afterwards was sunk by an earthquake and became an impassable mud shoal, inhibiting travel to any part of the ocean. The Egyptians, Plato asserted, described Atlantis as an island comprising mostly mountains in the northern portions and along the shore, and encompassing a great plain of an oblong shape in the south "extending in one direction three thousand stadia [about 555 km; 345 mi], but across the center inland it was two thousand stadia [about 370 km; 230 mi]." Fifty stadia [9 km; 6 mi] from the coast was a mountain that was low on all sides...broke it off all round about... the central island itself was five stades in diameter [about 0.92 km; 0.57 mi].
In Plato's myth, Poseidon fell in love with Cleito, the daughter of Evenor and Leucippe, who bore him five pairs of male twins. The eldest of these, Atlas, was made rightful king of the entire island and the ocean (called the Atlantic Ocean in his honor), and was given the mountain of his birth and the surrounding area as his fiefdom. Atlas's twin Gadeirus, or Eumelus in Greek, was given the extremity of the island towards the Pillars of Heracles. The other four pairs of twins—Ampheres and Evaemon, Mneseus and Autochthon, Elasippus and Mestor, and Azaes and Diaprepes—were also given "rule over many men, and a large territory."
Poseidon carved the mountain where his love dwelt into a palace and enclosed it with three circular moats of increasing width, varying from one to three stadia and separated by rings of land proportional in size. The Atlanteans then built bridges northward from the mountain, making a route to the rest of the island. They dug a great canal to the sea, and alongside the bridges carved tunnels into the rings of rock so that ships could pass into the city around the mountain; they carved docks from the rock walls of the moats. Every passage to the city was guarded by gates and towers, and a wall surrounded each of the city's rings. The walls were constructed of red, white and black rock quarried from the moats, and were covered with brass, tin and the precious metal orichalcum, respectively.
According to Critias, 9,000 years before his lifetime a war took place between those outside the Pillars of Hercules at the Strait of Gibraltar and those who dwelt within them. The Atlanteans had conquered the parts of Libya within the Pillars of Heracles as far as Egypt and the European continent as far as Tyrrhenia, and subjected its people to slavery. The Athenians led an alliance of resistors against the Atlantean empire, and as the alliance disintegrated, prevailed alone against the empire, liberating the occupied lands.
=== Ancient ===
Other than Plato's Timaeus and Critias there is no primary ancient account of Atlantis, which means every other account on Atlantis relies on Plato in one way or another.
Some ancient writers viewed Atlantis as fiction while others believed it was real. The philosopher Crantor, a student of Plato's student Xenocrates, is often cited as an example of a writer who thought the story to be historical fact. His work, a commentary on Plato's Timaeus, is lost, but Proclus, a Christian historian of the fifth century AD, reports on it. The passage in question has been represented in the modern literature as both claiming that Crantor actually visited Egypt and had conversations with priests and saw hieroglyphs confirming the story, or as learning about them from other visitors to Egypt. Proclus wrote
The next sentence is often translated as Crantor adds, that this is testified by the prophets of the Egyptians, who assert that these particulars [which are narrated by Plato] are written on pillars which are still preserved. But in the original, the sentence starts not with the name Crantor but with the word 'He', and whether this referred to Crantor or Plato is the subject of considerable debate. Proponents of both Atlantis as a myth and Atlantis as history have argued that the word should be translated as Crantor Alan Cameron argues that it should be interpreted as 'Plato', and that when Proclus writes we must bear in mind concerning this whole feat of the Athenians, that it is neither a mere myth nor unadorned history, although some take it as history and others as myth... he is treating "Crantor's view as mere personal opinion, nothing more; in fact he first quotes and then dismisses it as representing one of the two unacceptable extremes." Cameron also points out that whether 'he' refers to Plato or Crantor, it does not support statements such as Otto Muck's "Crantor came to Sais and saw there in the temple of Neith the column, completely covered with hieroglyphs, on which the history of Atlantis was recorded. Scholars translated it for him, and he testified that their account fully agreed with Plato's account of Atlantis...." or J.V. Luce's suggestion that Crantor sent "a special enquiry to Egypt" and that he may simply be referring to Plato's own claims.
Another passage from Proclus' commentary on the Timaeus gives a description of the geography of Atlantis: "That an island of such nature and size once existed is evident from what is said by certain authors who investigated the things around the outer sea. For according to them, there were seven islands in that sea in their time, sacred to Persephone, and also three others of enormous size, one of which was sacred to Pluto, another to Ammon, and another one between them to Poseidon, the extent of which was a thousand stadia [200 km]; and the inhabitants of it—they add—preserved the remembrance from their ancestors of the immeasurably large island of Atlantis which had really existed there and which for many ages had reigned over all islands in the Atlantic sea and which itself had like-wise been sacred to Poseidon. Now these things Marcellus has written in his Aethiopica". Marcellus remains unidentified.
Plato's account of Atlantis may have also inspired parodic imitation: writing only a few decades after the Timaeus and Critias, the historian Theopompus of Chios wrote of a land beyond the ocean known as Meropis. This description was included in Book 8 of his voluminous Philippica, which contains a dialogue between King Midas and Silenus, a companion of Dionysus. Silenus describes the Meropids, a race of men who grow to twice normal size, and inhabit two cities on the island of Meropis (Cos?): Eusebes (Template:Polytonic, "Pious-town") and Machimos (Template:Polytonic, "Fighting-town"). He also reports that an army of ten million soldiers crossed the ocean to conquer Hyperborea, but abandoned this proposal when they realized that the Hyperboreans were the luckiest people on earth. Heinz-Günther Nesselrath has argued that these and other details of Silenus' story are meant as imitation and exaggeration of the Atlantis story, for the purpose of exposing Plato's ideas to ridicule.
The 4th century AD historian Ammianus Marcellinus, relying on a lost work by Timagenes, a historian writing in the 1st century BC, writes that the Druids of Gaul said that part of the inhabitants of Gaul had migrated there from distant islands. Some have understood Ammianus's testimony as a claim that at the time of Atlantis's actual sinking into the sea, its inhabitants fled to western Europe; but Ammianus in fact says that “the Drasidae (Druids) recall that a part of the population is indigenous but others also migrated in from islands and lands beyond the Rhine" (Res Gestae 15.9), an indication that the immigrants came to Gaul from the north (Britain, the Netherlands or Germany), not from a theorized location in the Atlantic Ocean to the south-west. Instead, the Celts that dwelled along the ocean were reported to venerate twin gods (Dioscori) that appeared to them coming from that ocean.
=== Modern ===
Francis Bacon's 1627 essay The New Atlantis describes a utopian society that he called Bensalem, located off the western coast of America. A character in the narrative gives a history of Atlantis that is similar to Plato's and places Atlantis in America. It is not clear whether Bacon means North or South America. Isaac Newton's 1728 The Chronology of the Ancient Kingdoms Amended studies a variety of mythological links to Atlantis. In the middle and late 19th century, several renowned Mesoamerican scholars, starting with Charles Etienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, and including Edward Herbert Thompson and Augustus Le Plongeon proposed that Atlantis was somehow related to Mayan and Aztec culture. The 1882 publication of Atlantis: the Antediluvian World by Ignatius L. Donnelly stimulated much popular interest in Atlantis. Donnelly took Plato's account of Atlantis seriously and attempted to establish that all known ancient civilizations were descended from its high Neolithic culture.
During the late 19th century, ideas about the legendary nature of Atlantis were combined with stories of other lost continents such as Mu and Lemuria. Helena Blavatsky wrote in The Secret Doctrine that the Atlanteans were cultural heroes (contrary to Plato who describes them mainly as a military threat), and are the fourth "Root Race", succeeded by the "Aryan race". Theosophists believe the civilization of Atlantis reached its peak between 1,000,000 and 900,000 years ago. Rudolf Steiner wrote of the cultural evolution of Mu or Atlantis. Edgar Cayce first mentioned Atlantis in 1923, and later suggested that it was originally a continent-sized region extending from the Azores to the Bahamas, holding an ancient, highly evolved civilization which had ships and aircraft powered by a mysterious form of energy crystal. He also predicted that parts of Atlantis would rise in 1968 or 1969. The Bimini Road, a submerged rock formation of large rectangular stones just off North Bimini Island in the Bahamas, was claimed by Robert Ferro and Michael Grumley to be evidence of the lost civilization.
According to Herodotus (c. 430 BC), a Phoenician expedition had circumnavigated Africa at the behest of pharaoh Necho, sailing south down the Red Sea and Indian Ocean and northwards in the Atlantic, re-entering the Mediterranean Sea through the Pillars of Hercules. His description of northwest Africa makes it very clear that he located the Pillars of Hercules precisely where they are located today. Nevertheless, a supposed belief that they had been placed at the Strait of Sicily prior to Eratosthenes, has been cited in some Atlantis theories.
==== In Nazi mysticism ==== The concept of Atlantis attracted Nazi theorists. In 1938, SS Officer Heinrich Himmler organized a German expedition to Tibet in 1939 to search for Aryan Atlanteans. According to Julius Evola, writing in 1934, the Atlanteans were Hyperboreans—Nordic supermen who originated on the North pole (see Thule). Similarly, Alfred Rosenberg (The Myth of the Twentieth Century, 1930) spoke of a "Nordic-Atlantean" or "Aryan-Nordic" master race.
Recent times Edit
As continental drift became more widely accepted during the 1960s, and the increased understanding of plate tectonics demonstrated the impossibility of a lost continent in the geologically recent past, most “Lost Continent” theories of Atlantis began to wane in popularity. Instead, the fictional nature of elements of Plato's story became widely emphasized.
Kenneth Feder points out that Critias's story in the Timaeus provides a major clue. In the dialogue, Critias says, referring to Socrates' hypothetical society:
Feder quotes A. E. Taylor, who wrote, "We could not be told much more plainly that the whole narrative of Solon's conversation with the priests and his intention of writing the poem about Atlantis are an invention of Plato's fancy."
Location hypotheses Edit
- Main article: Location hypotheses of Atlantis
Since Donnelly's day, there have been dozens of locations proposed for Atlantis, to the point where the name has become a generic concept, divorced from the specifics of Plato's account. This is reflected in the fact that many proposed sites are not within the Atlantic at all. Few today are scholarly or archaeological hypotheses, while others have been made by psychic or other pseudoscientific means. Many of the proposed sites share some of the characteristics of the Atlantis story (water, catastrophic end, relevant time period), but none has been demonstrated to be a true historical Atlantis.
In or near the Mediterranean Sea Edit
Most of the historically proposed locations are in or near the Mediterranean Sea: islands such as Sardinia, Crete and Santorini, Sicily, Cyprus, and Malta; land-based cities or states such as Troy, Tartessos, and Tantalus (in the province of Manisa), Turkey; and Israel-Sinai or Canaan.Template:Citation needed The Thera eruption, dated to the 17th or 16th century BC, caused a large tsunami that experts hypothesize devastated the Minoan civilization on the nearby island of Crete, further leading some to believe that this may have been the catastrophe that inspired the story. A. G. Galanopoulos argued that the time scale has been distorted by an error in translation, probably from Egyptian into Greek, which produced "thousands" instead of "hundreds"; this same error would rescale Plato's Kingdom of Atlantis to the size of Crete, while leaving the city the size of the crater on Thera; 900 years before Solon would be the 15th century BC. In the area of the Black Sea the following locations have been proposed: Bosporus and Ancomah (a legendary place near Trabzon). The Sea of Azov was proposed in 2003.
In the Atlantic Ocean Edit
The location of Atlantis in the Atlantic Ocean has certain appeal given the closely related names. Popular culture often places Atlantis there, perpetuating the original Platonic setting. Several hypotheses place the sunken island in northern Europe, including Sweden (by Olof Rudbeck in Atland, 1672–1702), or in the North Sea. Some have proposed the Celtic Shelf and Andalusia as possible locations, and that there is a link to Ireland. The Canary Islands have also been identified as a possible location, west of the Straits of Gibraltar but in proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. Various islands or island groups in the Atlantic were also identified as possible locations, notably the Azores. However detailed geological studies of the Canary Islands, the Azores, and the ocean bottom surrounding them found a complete lack of any evidence for the catastrophic subsidence of these islands at any time during their existence and a complete lack of any evidence that the ocean bottom surrounding them was ever dry land at any time in the past. The submerged island of Spartel near the Strait of Gibraltar has also been suggested.
Other locations Edit
Caribbean locations such as Cuba, the Bahamas, and the Bermuda Triangle have been proposed as sites of Atlantis. Areas in the Pacific and Indian Oceans have also been proposed including Indonesia, Malaysia or both (i.e. Sundaland) and stories of a lost continent off India named "Kumari Kandam" have inspired some to draw parallels to Atlantis, as has the Yonaguni Monument of Japan. Antarctica has also been suggested.
Art, literature and popular culture Edit
- Main article: Atlantis in art, literature and popular culture
The legend of Atlantis is featured in many books, films, television series, games, songs and other creative works. Recent examples of Atlantis on-screen include the television series Stargate Atlantis and the Disney animated film Atlantis: The Lost Empire. The first Tomb Raider video game features Atlantis as the basis of its plot and the location for its climactic ending. It is also featured prominently and somewhat philosophically in Robert Anton Wilson and Robert Shea's The Illuminatus! Trilogy, and is a staple of New Age philosophies.
- ↑ Plato's Timaeus is usually dated 360 BC; it was followed by his Critias.
- ↑ Alan Cameron, Greek Mythography in the Roman World, Oxford University Press (2004) p. 124
- ↑ Plutarch, Life of Solon.
- ↑ Atlantis—Britannica Online Encyclopedia
- ↑ Critias 113, Bury translation.
- ↑ Critias 116a, Bury translation.
- ↑ The name is a back-formation from Gades, the Greek name for Cadiz.
- ↑ Critias 116bc
- ↑ Nesselrath (2005), pp. 161–171.
- ↑ Timaeus 24a: Template:Polytonic.
- ↑ Cameron 2002
- ↑ Castleden 2001, p,168
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Cameron 1983
- ↑ Proclus, Commentary on Plato's Timaeus, p. 117.10–30 (=FGrHist 671 F 1), trans. Taylor, Nesselrath).
- ↑ Strabo 2.3.6
- ↑ Nesselrath 1998, pp. 1–8.
- ↑ Porphyry, Life of Plotinus, 7=35.
- ↑ Fitzpatrick-Matthews, Keith. Lost Continents: Atlantis.
- ↑  Bibliotheca historica - Diodorus Siculus 4.56.4: "And the writers even offer proofs of these things, pointing out that the Celts who dwell along the ocean venerate the Dioscori above any of the gods, since they have a tradition handed down from ancient times that these gods appeared among them coming from the ocean. Moreover, the country which skirts the ocean bears, they say, not a few names which are derived from the Argonauts and the Dioscori."
- ↑ Isaac Newton (1728). The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended
- ↑ Robinson, Lytle, 1972, Edgar Cayce’s Story of the Origin and Destiny of Man, Berkeley Books, New York, pg 51.
- ↑ Ferro and Grumley, Atlantis: the Autobiography of a Search (New York: Doubleday) 1970.
- ↑ Evola, Revolt Against the Modern World, 1934.
- ↑ Feder, Kenneth L., Frauds, Myths and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology, Mayfield Publishing, 1999, p. 164.
- ↑ The wave that destroyed Atlantis Harvey Lilley, BBC News Online, 2007-04-20. Retrieved 2007-04-21.
- ↑ Galanopoulos, Angelos Geōrgiou, and Edward Bacon, Atlantis: The Truth Behind the Legend, Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1969
- ↑ Eagle, Wind, Atlantis Motherland, Maui, HI: Cosmic Vortex, 2003 ISBN 0-9719580-0-9
- ↑ Template:Cite web
- ↑ Location hypotheses of Atlantis
- ↑ http://antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/kuhne/ A location for "Atlantis"? Rainer W. Kühne Antiquity Vol 78 No 300 June 2004
- ↑ Hanson, Bill. The Atlantis Triangle. 2003.
Further reading Edit
Ancient sources Edit
- Plato, Timaeus, translated by Benjamin Jowett at Project Gutenberg; alternative version with commentary.
- Plato, Critias, translated by Benjamin Jowett at Project Gutenberg; alternative version with commentary.
Modern sources Edit
- Bichler, R (1986). 'Athen besiegt Atlantis. Eine Studie über den Ursprung der Staatsutopie', Canopus, vol. 20, no. 51, pp. 71–88.
- Cameron, Alan (1983). 'Crantor and Posidonius on Atlantis', The Classical Quarterly, New Series, Vol. 33, No. 1 (1983), pp. 81–91
- Cayce, Edgar Evans (1968). Edgar Cayce's Atlantis. ISBN 9780876045121
- Crowley, Aleister - Lost Continent
- De Camp, LS (1954). Lost Continents: The Atlantis Theme in History, Science, and Literature, New York: Gnome Press.
- Castleden, Rodney (2001) Atlantis Destroyed', London:Routledge
- Donnelly, I (1882). Atlantis: The Antediluvian World, New York: Harper & Bros. Retrieved November 6, 2001, from Project Gutenberg.
- Ellis, R (1998). Imaging Atlantis, New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-679-44602-8
- Erlingsson, U (2004). Atlantis from a Geographer's Perspective: Mapping the Fairy Land, Miami: Lindorm. ISBN 0-9755946-0-5
- Flem-Ath R, Wilson C (2001). The Atlantis Blueprint: Unlocking the Ancient Mysteries of a Long-Lost Civilization, Delacorte Press
- Frau, S (2002). Le Colonne d'Ercole: Un'inchiesta, Rome: Nur neon. ISBN 88-900740-0-0
- Gill, C (1976). 'The origin of the Atlantis myth', Trivium, vol. 11, pp. 8–9.
- Gordon, J.S. (2008). 'The Rise and Fall of Atlantis: and the mysterious origins of human civilization', Watkins Publishing, London. ISBN 978-1-905857-24-1
- Görgemanns, H (2000). 'Wahrheit und Fiktion in Platons Atlantis-Erzählung', Hermes, vol. 128, pp. 405–420.
- Griffiths, JP (1985). 'Atlantis and Egypt', Historia, vol. 34, pp. 35f.
- Heidel, WA (1933). 'A suggestion concerning Platon's Atlantis', Daedalus, vol. 68, pp. 189–228.
- Jakovljevic, Ranko (2005) Gvozdena vrata Atlantide, IK Beoknjiga Belgrade. ISBN 86-7694-042-8
- Jakovljevic, Ranko (2008) Atlantida u Srbiji IK Pesic i sinovi Belgrade. ISBN 978-86-7540-091-2
- Jordan, P (1994). The Atlantis Syndrome, Stroud: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-3518-9
- King, D. (1970). Finding Atlantis: A true story of genius, madness, and an extraordinary quest for a lost world. Harmony Books, New York. ISBN 1-4000-4752-8
- Luce, J V (1982). End of Atlantis: New Light on an Old Legend, Efstathiadis Group: Greece
- Martin, TH  (1981). 'Dissertation sur l'Atlantide', in TH Martin, Études sur le Timée de Platon, Paris: Librairie philosophique J. Vrin, pp. 257–332.
- Morgan, KA (1998). 'Designer history: Plato's Atlantis story and fourth-century ideology', Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. 118, pp. 101–118.
- Muck, Otto Heinrich, The Secret of Atlantis, Translation by Fred Bradley of Alles über Atlantis (Econ Verlag GmbH, Düsseldorf-Wien, 1976), Times Books, a division of Quadrangle/The New York Times Book Co., Inc., Three Park Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016, 1978
- Nesselrath, HG (1998). 'Theopomps Meropis und Platon: Nachahmung und Parodie', Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft, vol. 1, pp. 1–8.
- Nesselrath, HG (2001a). 'Atlantes und Atlantioi: Von Platon zu Dionysios Skytobrachion', Philologus, vol. 145, pp. 34–38.
- Nesselrath, HG (2001b). 'Atlantis auf ägyptischen Stelen? Der Philosoph Krantor als Epigraphiker', Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, vol. 135, pp. 33–35.
- Nesselrath, HG (2002). Platon und die Erfindung von Atlantis, München/Leipzig: KG Saur Verlag. ISBN 3-598-77560-1
- Nesselrath, HG (2005). 'Where the Lord of the Sea Grants Passage to Sailors through the Deep-blue Mere no More: The Greeks and the Western Seas', Greece & Rome, vol. 52, pp. 153–171.
- Phillips, ED (1968). 'Historical Elements in the Myth of Atlantis', Euphrosyne, vol. 2, pp. 3–38
- Ramage, ES (1978). Atlantis: Fact or Fiction?, Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-10482-3
- Settegast, M. (1987). Plato Prehistorian: 10,000 to 5000 B.C. in Myth and Archaeology, Cambridge, MA, Rotenberg Press.
- Spence, L  (2003). The History of Atlantis, Mineola, NY: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-42710-2
- Template:Cite book.
- Szlezák, TA (1993). 'Atlantis und Troia, Platon und Homer: Bemerkungen zum Wahrheitsanspruch des Atlantis-Mythos', Studia Troica, vol. 3, pp. 233–237.
- Vidal-Naquet, P (1986). 'Athens and Atlantis: Structure and Meaning of a Platonic Myth', in P Vidal-Naquet, The Black Hunter, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 263–284. ISBN 0-8018-3251-9
- Wilson, Colin (1996). From Atlantis to the Sphinx ISBN 1-85227-526-X
- Zangger, E (1993). The Flood from Heaven: Deciphering the Atlantis legend, New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-11350-8
- Zhirov, Nikolai F., Atlantis – Atlantology: Basic Problems, Translated from the Russian by David Skvirsky, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1970
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