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The Human Torch, also known as Jim Hammond, is a fictional character, a Marvel Comics-owned superhero. Created by writer-artist Carl Burgos, he first appeared in Marvel Comics #1 (Oct.1939), published by Marvel's predecessor, Timely Comics.

The "Human" Torch was actually an android created by scientist Phineas Horton. He possessed the ability to surround himself with fire and control flames. In his earliest appearances, he was portrayed as a science fiction monstrosity, but quickly became a hero.

The Human Torch was one of Timely Comics' three signature characters, along with Captain America and Namor the Sub-Mariner. Like many superheroes, the Human Torch fell into obscurity by the 1950s. In 1961, Marvel recycled his name and powers into a new, unrelated Human Torch, a member of the Fantastic Four (who actually was human). Unlike Captain America and the Sub-Mariner, the original Human Torch has had only a small presence in the post-1950s Marvel comic books and is closely associated with the Golden Age.

Publication historyEdit

Following his debut in the hit Marvel Comics #1,[1] the Human Torch proved popular enough that he soon became one of the first superheroes to headline a solo title. Through the 1940s, the Torch starred or was featured in Marvel Mystery Comics (the book's title beginning with issue #2), The Human Torch (premiering with issue #2, Fall 1940, having taken over the numbering of the defunct Red Raven Comics), and Captain America Comics #19, 21-67, 69, 76 & 77, as well as appearing in several issues of All Select Comics, All Winners Comics, Daring Comics, Mystic Comics, and Young Allies Comics.

Seeing a natural "fire and water" theme, Timely was responsible for comic books' first major crossover, with a two-issue battle between the Human Torch and the Sub-Mariner that spanned Marvel Mystery Comics #8-9 — telling the same story from the two characters' different perspectives.

File:Marvelmystery9.jpg

Marvel Mystery Comics ended its run with #92 (June 1949), and The Human Torch with #35 (March 1949), as superheroes in general faded in popularity. Timely Comics publisher Martin Goodman — who by the early 1950s had transitioned the company to its next iteration, as Atlas Comics — attempted to revive superheroes with the anthology comic Young Men #24-28 (Dec. 1953 - June 1954), starring the Human Torch (art by Syd Shores and Dick Ayers, variously, with covers and initially some panels featuring the Torch redrawn by Burgos for style consistency), along with the Sub-Mariner and Captain America. The solo title The Human Torch returned for issues #36-38 (April-Aug. 1954) before again being canceled. The Torch also appeared in stories in the briefly revived Captain America Comics and Sub-Mariner Comics, and in the anthology Men's Adventures #28 (July 1954).

The original Human Torch debuted in present-day Marvel Comics continuity in Fantastic Four Annual #4 (Nov. 1966).

Fictional character biographyEdit

Early lifeEdit

The Human Torch was an android created by Professor Phineas T. Horton in his lab in Brooklyn, New York for scientific purposes. At a press-conference unveiling, however, Horton's creation burst into flames when exposed to oxygen, and, with human-like sentience, personality, and awareness. Public outcry led to the Torch being sealed in concrete, though he escaped due to a crack that let oxygen seep in. While the Torch then inadvertently caused parts of New York City to burn, and after dealing with a mobster who wanted to gain advantage of his abilities, he eventually learned to control his flame, rebelled against his creator, and vowed to help humanity.[2]

The Torch later first encountered and battled Namor the Sub-Mariner.[3]

He would join other heroes as war broke out in Europe, and later in the Pacific, to fight the Axis powers. In his solo title's debut issue, he acquired a young partner, Thomas "Toro" Raymond, the mutant son of two nuclear scientists whose exposure to radiation gave him the ability to control fire.[4] The Human Torch also joined the New York City police force as part of his "human cover" under the name James "Jim" Hammond. He would later drop the human name and serve the police force outright as the Human Torch, fighting villains and his off-and-on foe, the Sub-Mariner.

Both the Torch and the Sub-Mariner joined with Captain America and his partner Bucky as the core of the superhero team the Invaders, fighting Nazis during World War II (in retcon stories that premiered in 1970s comics).[5] With the Invaders, he was soon brainwashed by the Red Skull and battled the Liberty Legion.[6] He later gave a blood transfusion to Jacqueline Falsworth, giving her superhuman powers to become Spitfire.[7]

The Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America, and Bucky banded together with the Whizzer, and Miss America in post-war America in a subsequent super-team, the All-Winners Squad (the original Captain America and Bucky's membership were later retconned as having been the second Captain America and Bucky).[8] In Marvel continuity, the Human Torch was responsible for the death of Adolf Hitler. When the Russians were invading Berlin, the Torch and Toro broke into Hitler's bunker just as he was about to commit suicide, to offer him the chance to surrender himself to the Americans, rather than the Russians. Hitler turned his pistol and opened fire. In return, the Human Torch blasted fire at Hitler, burning him alive.[9]

Sometime afterward, the Torch was placed in deactivation sleep in the Mojave Desert; an atomic bomb test awoke him. Learning that Toro had been captured by the Soviets and brainwashed, the Torch rescued his old partner and learned that the nuclear bomb's radiation had made his powers both much stronger and more unstable.Template:Issue In order to keep Toro a young boy, the writers retconned the character slightly, claiming the Torch met Toro after World War II rather than at the beginning.Template:Citation needed The revival lasted five issues. Later writers explained how fearing he would become a danger to those around him, the Torch flew back out into the desert and went nova, using up his energy reserve and effectively deactivating himself.Template:Issue

Present-dayEdit

In modern-day continuity, the supervillain the Mad Thinker reactivated the Torch to have him battle the Fantastic Four, deactivating him when the Torch refused to kill the heroes.[10] A storyline in the Avengers, dealing with the secret background of its android member, the Vision, gradually revealed that the Torch's body had been found by a renegade robot named Ultron 5 and modified to become the Vision, his mind wiped of past memories and his powers altered with the coerced help of the Human Torch's original creator, Phineas Horton. The seed of this idea was planted by artist Neal Adams and worked out in detail in The Avengers #133-135 (May-June 1975) by writer Steve Englehart.

A later story by Roy Thomas in What If? #4 (Aug. 1977), planted the suggestion that the Vision was actually made from a second android created by Horton, named Adam II. This freed up the Human Torch for a possible revival. This was followed up by John Byrne, who had the Scarlet Witch revive the Torch in Avengers West Coast, seeking answers about her husband, the Vision, and to help Ann Raymond, wife of Tom "Toro" Raymond. The Torch served the Avengers for many issues before losing his powers to save the former superheroine Spitfire in the 1990s series Namor. His powers gone, the Torch settled down with Ann Raymond.

He became the Chief of Security for Oracle, Inc., and would appear later as the CEO of Oracle, Inc., a company run by Namor. There he ran the mercenary team Heroes for Hire, and his mysterious connection to the Vision was furthered when Ant-Man (Scott Lang) declared that his internal mechanisms were not merely similar, but identical to the Vision's, despite the profound differences in their appearance and powers. During a time-travel adventure, the Avengers subsequently discovered Immortus, the custodian of Limbo, had used a device called the Forever Crystal to diverge the Torch's personal timeline while keeping the two outcomes concurrent. According to this explanation, the Human Torch is the Vision, but also continues to exist as himself.

File:Newinvaders9.jpg

When Oracle Inc. was closed down and Heroes for Hire disbanded, Hammond was soon asked to head Citizen V's V-Battalion upon the retirement of Roger Aubrey, the Destroyer. While on leave from the V-Battalion as field leader of the New Invaders, he became attached to Tara, a female android based on him, whom he came to regard as a daughter of sorts. He also renewed acquaintances with Spitfire, to the dismay of her beau, Union Jack (Joey Chapman). Tara was revealed to have been created by the Red Skull; overrides on her developing personality allowed the Invaders' enemies, the Axis Mundi, to use her as a weapon against the team. As Tara heated toward overload to kill the Invaders, the Torch channeled her heat in order to prevent her meltdown. With his own systems then overloading, he flew high into the atmosphere, away from where he could cause harm, and detonated.

The Torch's remains were recovered by the United Nations and sequestered for research. They were subsequently stolen by professor Zhang Chin, who used the Torch's chemistry to create a virus weapon that caused infected persons to immolate. Captain America and the Sub-Mariner stopped the attack, and were able to pressure the U.S. Government into burying the Torch with full military honors.[11]

The superhuman training camp created in the aftermath of the Civil War is named Camp Hammond, in the Torch's honor. A statue of Hammond on the grounds bears the inscription "JIM HAMMOND, THE FIRST OF THE MARVELS: He showed us that heroes can be made".[12] When the camp is shut down by Norman Osborn, an angry mob tore down the statue.[13]

Avengers/InvadersEdit

The original Human Torch appears in the Avengers/Invaders maxi-series alongside his fellow Invaders when an incident takes them from the battlefields of World War II to the present Marvel Universe, where they encounter both the New Avengers and Mighty Avengers[14].

WeaponizationEdit

Some time after his destruction, the pieces of his body are gathered and reassembled in a secret UN lab, until stolen by a squad of mercenaries led by Batroc the Leaper, at the behest of the Chinese science-villain Professor Pandemic. As a young boy, the Professor was rescued from Japanese authorities by the Invaders, and was fascinated by the Torch. Now, he intends to use the technology to further his goals. The new Captain America, Black Widow, and the Sub-Mariner race to prevent this from happening.[15] The Professor used the Torch's chemistry and cell structure to create an airborne virus that can spontaneously kill people.[16] The Professor plans to use this virus to eradicate half of Earth's population. Luckily, Cap is able to stop this and made sure that Jim received a proper burial.[17].

The TorchEdit

At the beginning of Dark Reign, the recently resurrected Toro is captured by A.I.M. during an attempt to kill the Mad Thinker. Initial experimentaton on Toro makes the Mad Thinker realize that he can reconstruct the Torch. A.I.M. steals the Torch's body from Arlington National Cemetery for expermentation.[18]

After the Mad Thinker and A.I.M. spent months experimenting on the Torch's corpse and on the captive Toro they are able to resurrect the Torch, but it seems all memories of his past have disappeared. The Mad Thinker gains complete control of the Torch using "Compound D", a synthetic molecule he adapted from the Torch's cells (H42N2C2O6), which he dubs "Horton cells"). Meanwhile Toro's powers begin to manifest themselves again and a startling discovery proves that Toro's mutation may have been created as a result of his mother working for Horton.[19]

Torch is now a weapon of mass destruction, and quickly reduces an entire town to debris, killing everyone and everything in sight after destroying several Estonian air force jets. An escape attempt by Toro damages the control mechanism and sets the Torch free. He immediately returns to the A.I.M. carrier and he begins murdering everyone in sight (again). The Mad Thinker reveals that he has managed to synthesize more of the Compound D which can interact with living organisms and control them. As he teleports to safety from the Torch killing spree the compound starts pouring into the ocean. It reaches an Atlantean settlement below, as it was being visited by Namor, and infects the population.[20]

PhysiologyEdit

Earlier writers portrayed the Torch's body as anatomically identical to human, but made out of synthetic materials (such as ceramic bone). Correspondingly, the Torch was shown to have human needs and human weaknesses; he has been felled by drugs, poison gas, and telepathic attacks in both Golden-Age stories and the Invaders series from the 1970s. The Torch has also been shown sleeping, eating, and drinking on more than one occasion.

After the Mad Thinker's modification and reactivation of the Torch, writers began to portray him as clearly mechanical, containing circuits, relays, and motors, much like a traditional robot. The reconciliation of these two different interpretations of the Torch's physiology remains an unresolved issue. Some recent issues of Captain America have portrayed the Torch's anatomy as more biologically based, moving the pendulum back in the other direction: the Torch's body has both DNA and a cellular structure, according to Zhang Chin.[16]

Very recently, the Mad Thinker himself has stated that the Torch's organs are composed of "Horton cells" - synthetic replicas of human cells using plastic and carbon polymers that duplicate the structures found in organic human cells.[18] These cells can be grown in a culture, and are compatible with human and mutant physiology. Even in small clusters, they are capable of generating and storing a remarkable amount of power:

  • While traveling inside The Human Torch in miniaturized form, Scott Lang temporarily gained a version of the Torch's powers after coming in contact with one of the cells that powers the TorchTemplate:Issue (an homage to a similar incident in which Henry Pym entered the Vision's body and was temporarily rendered intangible).Template:Citation needed
  • The Pyronanos, a type of nanomachine-based artificial beings, were created using cells secretly extracted from Jim Hammond.[21]
  • Compound D, a mind control substance created by the Mad Thinker, is made from Horton cells.
  • Thomas "Toro" Raymond, the Torch's teenaged sidekick, is a mutant who was exposed to Horton cells as a child. The cells bonded to his nervous system and caused his powers to manifest as an exact duplicate of the Torch's.[22]

Of particular note is the Torch's synthetic blood, which in addition to being a universal blood type has been shown to have remarkable restorative properties:

  • A "blood transfusion" from the Torch gave Spitfire her superspeed powers,Template:Issue and prevented her conversion to one of the undead;[23] a second transfusion decades later saved her life and restored her youth.[24] Aware of the initial transformation, the Hyena obtained a blood specimen from the Torch in the hopes of creating an army of Nazi speedsters.Template:Issue A similar transfusion to Warrior Woman reversed much of her brain damage and restored her health and power.Template:Issue
  • The robot Ultron reported he could "taste life" after drinking the Torch's blood.[14].

The origin of the Torch's mechanical parts remains unknown, though it is possible they were added after the Torch's original creation and are not essential to his life.

Powers and abilitiesEdit

The Human Torch is a synthetic being designed and constructed of artificial materials. He has the capacity for creative intelligence, unlimited self-motivated activity, and human-like emotions. The Torch has the ability to envelop his body in fiery plasma without harm to himself and to utilize this heat energy for various effects, including flight, formation of fiery shapes, energy releases in the form of heat blasts, "nova flame bursts" (highest intensity heat blasts, similar to the heat-pulse of a nuclear warhead), and concussive force blasts. He is also immune to the effects of heat and flames not of his own creation. The Torch has the ability to control ambient heat energy in his immediate environment, allowing him to take control of flames not of his own generation and to absorb heat from outside sources. The Torch's flame can be extinguished by lack of oxygen, or by smothering materials such as water, sand, fire-fighting foam, or heat-resistant blankets unless his flame is at such intensity that it immediately vaporizes such materials on contact.

While in flame form, the original Human Torch has engaged in hand to hand combat with Namor, the Sub-Mariner. He has also dug underground and through vessels like a human missile.

The upper limit of his resistance has been undefined over the years, having once walked out stronger from a nuclear blast, and on another time considered destroyed by another nuclear blast, this last one happening in the last issue of New Invaders.

The Torch was a member of the NYPD in the 1940s, and has police academy training. He has received some training in unarmed combat by Captain America, and is an expert in the combat use of his superhuman powers. The Torch is also an accomplished street fighter.

The Torch can live without oxygen, entering a stasis mode.

BibliographyEdit

  • Marvel Comics #1
  • Marvel Mystery Comics #2-92
  • Human Torch Comics #2-38
  • All-Select Comics #1-10
  • Daring Comics #9-12
  • Mystic Vol. 2 #1-2
  • Young Allies #1-20
  • All Winners Vol. 1 #1-19, 21
  • Captain America Comics #19, 21-67, 69, 76-78
  • Sub-Mariner Comics #33-42
  • Heros For Hire Vol. 1 #1-8
  • Avengers/Invaders #1-12
  • Invaders Vol. 1 #1-41, Annual #1, Giant-Size #1
  • Invaders Vol. 2 #1-4
  • New Invaders #0-9
  • Avengers West Coast #50-83, Annual #4-5
  • Fantastic Four Annual #4
  • Marvel Premiere #30
  • Young Men #24-28
  • Men's Adventures #27-28

Collected EditionsEdit

  • Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Human Torch: Vol. 1 (Human Torch #2-5A)
  • Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Human Torch: Vol. 2 (Human Torch Comics #5B-8)
  • Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age All-Winners: Vol. 1 (All-Winners Comics #1-4)
  • Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age All-Winners: Vol. 2 (All-Winners Comics #5-8)
  • Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age All-Winners: Vol. 3 (All-Winners Comics #9-14)
  • Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Marvel Comics: Vol. 1 (Marvel Comics #1, Marvel Mystery Comics #2-4)
  • Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Marvel Comics: Vol. 2 (Marvel Mystery Comics #5-8)
  • Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Marvel Comics: Vol. 3 (Marvel Mystery Comics #9-12)
  • Marvel Masterworks: Golden Age Marvel Comics: Vol. 4 (Marvel Mystery Comics #13-16)
  • Marvel Masterworks: Atlas Era Heroes: Vol. 1 (Marvel Boy #1-2, Astonishing #3-6, Young Men #24-28)
  • Marvel Masterworks: Atlas Era Heroes: Vol. 2 (Men's Adventures #27-28, Captain America #76-78, Human Torch #36-38)
  • Marvel Masterworks: Young Allies: Vol. 1 (Young Allies #1-4)
  • Invaders Classic Vol. 1 (Invaders Vol. 1 #1-9, Giant-Size Invaders #1 and Marvel Premiere #29–30)
  • Invaders Classic Vol. 2 (Invaders Vol. 1 #10-21 and Annual #1)
  • Invaders Classic Vol. 3 (Invaders #22-23 and #25-34)
  • Avengers Vol. 5 (New Invaders #0)
  • New Invaders: To End All Wars (collects New Invaders #1-9)

Other mediaEdit

TelevisionEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Per researcher Keif Fromm in Alter Ego #49, p. 4 (caption), that initial comic, cover-dated October 1939, quickly sold out 80,000 copies. Goodman immediately produced a second printing, cover-dated November 1939 and identical except for a black bar in the inside-front-cover indicia over the October date, and the November date added at the end. That sold approximately 800,000 copies.
  2. Marvel Comics #1 (Oct. 1939)
  3. Marvel Mystery Comics #8-10 (June-Aug. 1940)
  4. Human Torch Comics #2 (Fall 1940). This is the first issue, the series having taken over the numbering of the unrelated series Red Raven Comics
  5. Giant-Size Invaders #1 (June 1975)
  6. Invaders#5-6 (March & May 1976); Marvel Premiere #30 (June 1976
  7. Invaders #11 (Dec. 1976)
  8. All Winners Comics #19 (Fall 1946)
  9. What If? #4 (Aug. 1977 - first series)
  10. Fantastic Four Annual #4
  11. Captain America #46-48
  12. Avengers: The Initiative #2 (June 2007)
  13. Avengers: The Initiative #23
  14. 14.0 14.1 Avengers/Invaders #1-12
  15. Captain America #43-46
  16. 16.0 16.1 Captain America #47
  17. Captain America #48
  18. 18.0 18.1 The Torch #1
  19. The Torch #2
  20. The Torch #3
  21. Livewires #1-6
  22. The Torch miniseries 2009
  23. Invaders 9-11
  24. Namor the Sub-Mariner #12

External linksEdit

Template:Avengers Template:Invadersit:Torcia Umana (originale) hu:Fáklya (android) nl:Human Torch (golden age) pt:Tocha Humana (original) fi:Ihmissoihtu tl:Human Torch (android)

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