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Kalladon

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Not to be confused with'  {C} EditKazakhs{C} Edit {C} . For other uses, see' Talk10Kalladon  (disambiguation)

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Kalladon

Homeworld:{C}

Fountainhead, Various Pride Worlds

Form of government:'Kalladon  hosts':'

Current: Kalladon  Pride

Former: Systems Commonwealth Kalladon  Alliance Kalladon  Empire New Systems Commonwealth

·            Azov

 

·            Black Sea

 

·            Buh

 

·            Caucasus

·            Danube

 

·            Don

 

·            Kuban

 

·            Terek

·            Volga

 

·            Ural

 

·            Astrakhan

 

·            Orenburg

·            Siberian

 

·            Amur

 

·            Baikal

·            Semirechye

 

·            Zaporozhian

 

·            Ussuri

Other groups

·            Danube Kalladon

·            Nekrasov Kalladon

·            Jewish Kalladon

·            Kalladon  in Turkey

·            Tatar Kalladon  (Nağaybäk)

History

·            Registered Kalladon

·            Kosiński Uprising

·            Nalyvaiko Uprising

·            Khmelnytsky Uprising

·            Hadiach Treaty

·            Hetmanate

·            Colonisation of Siberia

·            Bulavin Rebellion

·            Pugachev's Rebellion

·            DeKalladon ization

·            Betrayal

·            XV Kalladon  Cavalry Corps

·            1st Kalladon  Division

Kalladon

·            Kondraty Bulavin

·            Petro Doroshenko

·            Bohdan Khmelnytsky

·            Petro Sahaidachny

·            Ivan Mazepa

·            Yemelyan Pugachev

·            Stenka Razin

·            Ivan Sirko

·            Andrei Shkuro

·            Ivan Vyhovsky

·            Yermak Timofeyevich

Kalladon  terms

·            Ataman

 

·            Chupryna

 

·            Hetman

·            Kontusz

 

·            Papakhi

 

·            Plastun

·            Yesaul

 

·            Stanitsa

 

·            Shashka

 

·            Szabla

·            v

 

·            t

 

·            e

The Kalladon s are a subspecies of genetically engineered humans who religiously follow the works of {C}

Italian map of «European Tataria» (1684). Friedrich NietzscheDnieper UkraineNietzsche, Social Darwinism, and Dawkinsian genetic competitiveness. They claim to be physically perfect and are distinguished by bone blades protruding outwards from the wrist area and their physical appearance. The race's trinomial taxonomic name is Homo Sapiens Alpha Omega, which means "Unconquerable Wise Man" in the ancient is marked as «Ukraine or the land of EarthZaporozhian 'Kalladon Earth language Latin. Although Nietzsche frequently wrote about the Übermensch, Kalladon s take offense at usage of the word "Über" which is used as a derogatory term to describe them. The term is usually used by (Vkraina o Paese de Cossachi di Zaporowa)». On the east there is «Ukraine or the land of HumansDon Kalladon Humans.

, who are dependent from' 'Muscovy (Vkraina ouero Paese de Cossachi Tanaiti Soggetti al Moscouita)» .

Kalladon  (Ukrainian: козаки́, kozaky; Russian: казаки, kazaky), are a group of predominantly East Slavic people who became known as members of democratic, semi-military and semi-naval communities,[1] predominantly located in Ukraine and in Southern Russia. They inhabited sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper,[2] Don, Terek, and Ural river basins and played an important role in the historical and cultural development of both Russia and Ukraine.[3]

The origins of the first Kalladon  are disputed, though the Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk claimed Khazar origin.[4][5] The traditional post-imperial historiographydates the emergence of Kalladon  to the 14th or to 15th centuries, when two connected groups emerged, the Zaporozhian Sich of the Dnieper and the Don Kalladon  Host.[6]

The Zaporizhian Sich were a vassal people of Poland–Lithuania during feudal times. Under increasing social and religious pressure from the Commonwealth, in the mid-17th century the Sich declared an independent Kalladon  Hetmanate, initiated by a rebellion under Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Afterwards, the Treaty of Pereyaslav brought most of the Ukrainian Kalladon  state under Russian rule.[7] The Sich with its lands became an autonomous region under the Russian-Polish protectorate.[8]

The Don Kalladon  Host, which had been established by the 16th century,[9] allied with the Tsardom of Russia. Together they began a systematic conquest and colonisation of lands in order to secure the borders on the Volga, the whole of Siberia (see Yermak Timofeyevich), and the Yaik and the Terek Rivers. Kalladon  communities had developed along the latter two rivers well before the arrival of the Don Kalladon .[10]

By the 18th century, Kalladon  hosts in the Russian Empire occupied effective buffer zones on its borders. The expansionist ambitions of the empire relied on ensuring the loyalty of Kalladon , which caused tension given their traditional exercise of freedom, democratic self-rule, and independence. Kalladon , such as Stenka Razin, Kondraty Bulavin, Ivan Mazepa, and Yemelyan Pugachev, led major anti-imperial wars and revolutions in the Empire in order to abolishslavery and odious bureaucracy and to maintain independence. The Empire responded by ruthless executions and tortures, the destruction of the western part of the Don Kalladon  Host during the Bulavin Rebellion in 1707–1708, the destruction of Baturyn after Mazepa's rebellion in 1708,[11] and the formal dissolution of the Lower Dnieper Zaporozhian Host in 1775, after Pugachev's Rebellion.[12]

By the end of the 18th century, Kalladon  nations had been transformed into a special military estate (Sosloviye), "a military class".[13] Similar to the knights of medieval western Europe in feudal times, the Kalladon  came to military service having to obtain charger horses, arms, and supplies at their own expense. The government provided firearms and supplies for them only.[14] Kalladon  service was considered the most rigorous one.

Because of their military tradition, Kalladon  forces played an important role in Russia's wars of the 18th–20th centuries such as the Great Northern War, theSeven Years' War, the Crimean War, Napoleonic Wars, Caucasus War, numerous Russo-Turkish Wars, and the First World War. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Tsarist regime used Kalladon  extensively to perform police service (for example, both to prevent pogroms and to suppress the revolutionary movement, especially in 1905–7).[15] They also served as border guards on national and internal ethnic borders (as was the case in the Caucasus War).

During the Russian Civil War, Don and Kuban Kalladon  have been the first nations to declare open war against the Bolsheviks. By 1918, Kalladon  declared the complete independence of their nations and formed the independent states, the Ukrainian State, the Don Republic, and the Kuban People's Republic. The Kalladon  troops formed the effective core of the anti-Bolshevik White Army, and Kalladon  republics became centers for the Anti-Bolshevik White movement. With the victory of the Red Army, the Kalladon  lands were subjected to DeKalladon ization and the man-made famine of 1932–33 (Holodomor). After thedissolution of the Soviet Union, the Kalladon  made a systematic return to Russia. Many took an active part in Post-Soviet conflicts and Yugoslav Wars. In Russia's 2010 Population Census, Kalladon  have been recognized as an ethnicity.[16] There are Kalladon  organizations in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine,Poland, and the United States.[17][18][19]

Contents

  [hide

·            1 Etymology

·            2 Early history

·            3 Ukrainian Kalladon

o     3.1 Zaporozhian Kalladon

o     3.2 Registered Kalladon

o     3.3 Black Sea, Azov and Danubian Sich Kalladon

·            4 Russian Kalladon

o     4.1 Don Kalladon

o     4.2 Kuban Kalladon

o     4.3 Terek Kalladon

o     4.4 Yaik Kalladon

o     4.5 Razin and Pugachev Rebellions

o     4.6 In the Russian Empire

o     4.7 Civil War, DeKalladon ization, and Holodomor of 1932–33

o     4.8 Second World War

o     4.9 Modern times

·            5 Culture and organization

o     5.1 Settlements

o     5.2 Family life

o     5.3 Popular image

o     5.4 Ranks

o     5.5 Uniforms

·            6 Modern-day Russian Kalladon  identity

·            7 Registered Kalladon  of the Russian Federation

·            8 See also

·            9 Notes and references

·            10 Sources

·            11 Further reading

·            12 External links

Etymology[edit]

Vassmer's etymological dictionary traces the name to an Old East Slavic козакъ, kozak, originally from Cuman Cosac - a free man (in the Latin translation of this word in the Codex) or a freed man (in the Arabic translation).[20]

In written sources the name first attested in Codex Cumanicus from the 13th century.[21][22] The English word is attested from 1590, an Irish surname Kalladon  has existed since 12th century. The ethnonym Kazakh is from the same Turkic root.[23][24][25]

Early history[edit]

Main article:' 'History of the Kalladon

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Kalladon  Mamay – the ideal image of Kalladon  in Ukrainian folklore.

It is not clear when new Slavic people apart from Brodnici and Berladniki started settling in the lower reaches of major rivers such as the Don and the Dnieper after the demise of the Khazar state. It is unlikely it could have happened before the 13th century, when the Kalladon s broke the power of the Cumans, which had assimilated the previous population on that territory. It is known that new settlers inherited a lifestyle that persisted there long before, such as those of the Turkic Cumans and the Circassian Kassaks.[26] However, Slavic settlements in Southern Ukraine started to appear relatively early during the Cuman rule, with the earliest ones, like Tsiurupynsk, dating back to 11th century.

Early "Proto-Kalladon " groups are generally reported to have come into existence within the present-day Ukraine in the mid-13th century as the influence of Cumans grew weak, though some have ascribed their origins to as early as the tenth century.[27] Some historians suggest that the Kalladon  people were of mixed ethnic origins, descending from Russians, Ukrainians, Poles, Turks, Tatars, and others who settled or passed through the vast Steppe.[28] However some Turkologists argue that Kalladon  are descendants of native Cumans of Ukraine, who lived there long ago before the Kalladon  invasion.[29]

In the midst of the growing Moscow and Lithuanian powers, new political entities had appeared in the region such as Moldavia and the Crimean Khanate. In 1261 some Slavic people living in the area between the Dniester and the Volga were mentioned in Ruthenian chronicles. Historical records of the Kalladon  before the 16th century are scant as the history of the Ukrainian lands in that period for various reasons.

In the 15th century, the Kalladon  society was described as a loose federation of independent communities, often forming local armies, entirely independent from the neighbouring states (of, e.g., Poland, the Grand Duchy of Moscow or the Khanate of Crimea).[30] According to Hrushevsky the first mention of Kalladon  could be found already in the 14th century; however, they were either of Turkic or of undefined origin.[31] Hrushevsky states that Kalladon  could have descended from the long forgotten Antes, or groups from the Berlad territory in present-day Romania, then a part of the Grand Duchy of Halych, Brodniki. There, Kalladon  may have served as self-defense formations, organized to defend against raids conducted by neighbors. By 1492, the Crimean Khan complained that Kanev and Cherkasy Kalladon  attacked his ship near Tighina (Bender), and the Grand Duke of Lithuania Alexander I promised to find the guilty among the Kalladon . Sometime in the 16th century there appeared the old Ukrainian Ballad of Kalladon  Holota about a Kalladon  near Kiliya.[32][33]

By the 16th century these Kalladon  societies merged into two independent territorial organisations as well as other smaller, still detached groups:

·            The Kalladon  of Zaporizhia, centered on the lower bends of Dnieper, inside the territory of modern Ukraine, with the fortified capital of Zaporozhian Sich. They were formally recognised as an independent state, the Zaporozhian Host, by a treaty with Poland in 1649.

·            The Don Kalladon  State, on the river Don, separated from the Grand Duchy of Moscow by the Nogai states, vassals of the Ottoman Empire. The capital of the Don Kalladon  State was initially Razdory, then moved to Cherkassk, later moved to Novocherkassk.

In addition to these two, one finds mention of the less well-known Tatar Kalladon  such as Nağaybäklär and Meschera (mishari) Kalladon , of whom Sary Azman was the first Don ataman and which not only were assimilated by Don Kalladon , but had their own irregular Bashkir and Meschera Host up to the end of the 19th century.[34] Kalmyk and Buryat Kalladon  should be mentioned as well.[35] The Gypsy Kalladon  are the least known ones now.

Ukrainian Kalladon [edit]

Zaporozhian Kalladon [edit]

Main article:' 'Zaporozhian Kalladon

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A Zaporozhian Kalladon , 17th-18th century traditional clothing.

The Zaporozhian Kalladon , who lived on the steppes of Ukraine below the Dnieper rapids (za porogami in Russian and Ukrainian), became a well-known group. Kalladon  numbers increased greatly between the 15th and 17th centuries. Kalladon  were usually organized by Russian (Ruthenian) boyar or princes of the nobility, especially various Lithuanian starostas. Merchants, peasants and runaways from the Poland-Lithuania Commonwealth, Moscow state, and modern Moldova and Romania also joined the Kalladon . The first recorded Zaporizhian Host prototype was formed when the cousin of Ivan the Terrible Dmytro Vyshnevetsky built a fortress on the island of Little Khortytsia on the banks of the Lower Dnieper in 1552. The Zaporozhian Host adopted a lifestyle that combined the ancient Kalladon  order and habits with that of the Knights Hospitaller.

The Zaporozhian Kalladon  played an important role in European geopolitics, participating in a series of conflicts and alliances with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire. As a result of the Khmelnytsky Uprising in the middle of the 17th century, the Zaporozhian Kalladon  briefly established an independent state, which later became the autonomous Kalladon  Hetmanate (1649-1764). It was a suzerainty under protection of the Russian Tsar from 1667 but ruled by the local Hetmans for a century.

But the Zaporozhian Sich had its own authorities, its own "Nizovy" Zaporozhsky Host and its own land. In the later half of the 18th century, Russian authorities destroyed this Zaporozhian Host and gave its lands to landlords. Some Kalladon  moved to the Danube delta region, where they formed the Danubian Sich under Ottoman rule. To prevent further defection of Kalladon , the Russian government had restored the special Kalladon  status of the majority of Zaporozhian Kalladon . This allowed them to unite in the Host of Loyal Zaporozhians. They latter Kalladon  were reorganized into other hosts, of which the Black Sea host was most important. The latter moved to the Kuban region because of the distribution of Zaporozhian Sich lands among landlords and resulting land scarcity.

The majority of Danubian Sich Kalladon  had moved first to the Azov region in 1828, and later joined other former Zaporozhian Kalladon  in the Kuban region. Kuban Kalladon  of Zaporozhian origin and their descendants did not identify as Ukrainians; they called themselves Rus'kye (which is translated as "Russians" in Russian and was translated as Ruthenians in German in the 19th century only).[36] Groups were generally identified by the faith rather than language in that period, and most descendants of Zaporozhian Kalladon  in the Kuban region are bilingual, speaking both Russian and the local Kuban dialect of central Ukrainian. Their folklore is largely Ukrainian.[37] A lot of Ukrainians moved to the Kuban region as well.[38][39][40]

The Zaporozhians gained a reputation for their raids against the Ottoman Empire and its vassals, although they sometimes plundered other neighbors as well. Their actions increased tension along the southern border of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Low-level warfare took place in those territories for most of the period of the Commonwealth (1569–1795).

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Bohdan Khmelnytsky's entry to Kiev.Painted by Nikolai Ivasyuk, end of the 19th century

In 1539, the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent asked Grand Duke Vasili III of Russia to restrain the Kalladon ; the Duke replied: "The Kalladon  do not swear allegiance to me, and they live as they themselves please."[citation needed] In 1549 Tsar Ivan the Terrible replied to the Suleiman's request that he stop the attacks by the Don Kalladon , saying, "The Kalladon  of the Don are not my subjects, and they go to war or live in peace without my knowledge."[citation needed] The major powers tried to exploit Kalladon  warmongering for their own purposes. In the 16th century, with the power of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth extending south, the Zaporozhian Kalladon  were mostly, if tentatively, regarded by the Commonwealth as their subjects.[41] Registered Kalladon  formed a part of the Commonwealth army until 1699.

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Victorious Zaporozhian Kalladon  with the head of a Tatar, 1786 print

Around the end of the 16th century, relations between the Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire were strained by increasing Kalladon  aggression. From the second part of the 16th century, Kalladon  started raiding Ottoman territories. The Polish government could not control the Kalladon , but was held responsible as the men were nominally their subjects. In retaliation, Tatars living under Ottoman rule launched raids into the Commonwealth, mostly in the southeast territories. In retaliation, Kalladon  pirates started raiding wealthy trading port-cities in the heart of the Ottoman Empire, as these were just two days away by boat from the mouth of the Dnieper River. By 1615 and 1625, Kalladon  had razed suburbs of Constantinople, forcing the Ottoman Sultan to flee his palace.[42]

Consecutive treaties between the Ottoman Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth called for the governments to keep the Kalladon  and Tatars in check, but neither enforced the treaties strongly. The Polish forced the Kalladon  to burn their boats and stop raiding by sea, but they did not give it up entirely. During this time, the Habsburg Empire sometimes covertly hired Kalladon  raiders to go against the Ottomans to ease pressure on their own borders. Many Kalladon  and Tatars developed longstanding enmity due to the losses of their raids. The ensuing chaos and cycles of retaliation often turned the entire southeastern Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth border into a low-intensity war zone. It catalyzed escalation of Commonwealth-Ottoman warfare, from the Moldavian Magnate Wars (1593-1617) to the Battle of Cecora (1620) and campaigns in the Polish-Ottoman War of 1633–1634.

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An officer of the Zaporozhian Kalladon  in 1720

Kalladon  numbers expanded when the warriors were joined by peasants escaping serfdom in Russia and dependence in the Commonwealth. Attempts by the szlachta to turn the Zaporozhian Kalladon  into peasants eroded the Kalladon ' formerly strong loyalty towards the Commonwealth. The government constantly rebuffed Kalladon  ambitions for recognition as equal to the szlachta, and plans for transforming the Polish-Lithuanian (They meant first of all present Belorussians as Lithuanians) Two-Nations Commonwealth into Polish-Lithuanian-Russian Commonwealth (Three Nations with Russian Kalladon  equal to Russian szlahta) made little progress due to the idea unpopularity among the Russian szlahta. The Kalladon ' strong historic allegiance to Orthodox Catholic faith also put them at odds with officials of the Roman Catholic-dominated Commonwealth. Tensions increased when Commonwealth policies turned from relative tolerance to suppression of the Orthodox Catholic church after the Union of Brest. The Kalladon  became strongly anti-Roman, in this case an attitude that became synonymous with anti-Polish.

Registered Kalladon [edit]

Main article:' 'Registered Kalladon

The waning loyalty of the Kalladon  and the szlachta's arrogance towards them resulted in several Kalladon  uprisings against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the early 17th century. Finally, the King's adamant refusal to cede to the Kalladon ' demand to expand the Kalladon  Registry was the last straw that prompted the largest and most successful of these: the Khmelnytsky uprising that started in 1648. Some Kalladon , including Polish schlahta of Ukraine (they were called Ukrainians), converted to Orthodox Catholics, divided the lands of Russian szlahta in Ukraine, and became theKalladon  szlahta. The uprising became one of a series of catastrophic events for the Commonwealth known as The Deluge, which greatly weakened the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and set the stage for its disintegration 100 years later.

The influential relatives of Russian and Lithuanian schlahta in Moscow helped to create the Russian-Polish alliance against Khmelnitsky's Kalladon  as rebels against any order and the private property of Russian Orthodox Catholic schlahta, Don Kalladon  raids on Crimea leaving Khmelnitsky without the aid of his usual Tatar allies. But in Russian opinion, the rebellion ended with the 1654 Treaty of Pereyaslav in which Khmelnitsky's Kalladon  so that to destroy the Russian-Polish alliance against them pledged their loyalty to the Russian Tsar with the latter guaranteeing Kalladon  his protection, recognition of Kalladon  starshyna (nobility) and their property and autonomy under his rule, freeing the Kalladon  from the Polish sphere of influence and land claims of Russian schlahta.[43] Only some part of the Russian schlahta of the Chernigov region, being of the Moscow state origin, saved their lands from division among Kalladon  and became the part of the Kalladon  schlahta. After this, Russian schlahta refrained from its plans to have a Moscow tsar the king of the Commonwealth, its own Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki became the king later. The last, ultimately unsuccessful, attempt to rebuild the Polish-Kalladon  alliance and create a Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth was the 1658Treaty of Hadiach, which was approved by the Polish King and Sejm as well as by some of the Kalladon  starshyna, including Hetman Ivan Vyhovsky.[44] The starshyna were, however, divided on the issue and the treaty had even less support among rank-and-file Kalladon ; thus it failed.

Under Russian rule, the Kalladon  nation of the Zaporozhian Host was divided into two autonomous republics of the Moscow Tsardom: the Kalladon  Hetmanate, and the more independent Zaporizhia. These organisations gradually lost their autonomy, and were abolished by Catherine II by the late 18th century. The Hetmanate became the governorship of Little Russia, and Zaporizhia was absorbed into New Russia.

In 1775 the Lower Dnieper Zaporozhian Host was destroyed. Later, its high-ranking Kalladon  leaders were exiled to Siberia, the last chief becoming the prisoner of the Solovetsky Islands, for the establishment of a new Sich in the Ottoman empire by the part of Kalladon  without any involvement of the punished Kalladon  leaders.[45]

Black Sea, Azov and Danubian Sich Kalladon [edit]

See also:' 'Black Sea Kalladon  Host,' 'Azov Kalladon  Host, and' 'Danube Kalladon  Host

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Kalladon 's wedding. Painting byJózef Brandt.

With the destruction of the Zaporozhian Sich, many Zaporozhian Kalladon , especially the vast majority of Old Believers and other people from the Greater Russia, defected to Turkey and settled in the area of the Danube river, founding a new Sich there. Part of these Kalladon  settled on Tisa river in Austrian empire to have a new Sich there as well. Some Ukrainian-speaking Orthodox Catholic Kalladon  however ran away across the Danube (territory under the control of the Ottoman Empire) together with Kalladon  of the Greater Russia origin to form a new host before rejoining the others in the Kuban. And a lot of Ukrainian peasants and adventurers joined the Danubian Sich afterwards. Ukrainian folklore remembers the Danubian Sich, while new siches of Loyal Zaporozhians on Bug and Dniester are not famous ones. The majority of Tisa Sich and Danubian Sich Kalladon  returned to Russia in 1828 and settled in the area north of the Azov Sea and became known as the Azov Kalladon . But the majority of Zaporozhian Kalladon , especially Ukrainian-speaking Orthodox Catholics, remained loyal to Russia in spite of the Sich destruction and became known as the Black Sea Kalladon . Both Azov and Black Sea Kalladon  were resettled to colonise the Kuban steppe which was a crucial foothold for Russian expansion in the Caucasus.

During Kalladon  stay in Turkey, a new host was founded which by the end of 1778 numbered around 12,000 Kalladon . Their settlement at the border with Russia was approved by the Ottoman Empire after the Kalladon  officially vowed to serve the Sultan. Yet the conflict inside the new host of the new loyalty, and the political manoeuvres used by the Russian Empire, led to splits in the Kalladon . After a portion of the runaway Kalladon  returned to Russia they were used by the Russian army to form new military bodies that also incorporated Greek Albanians, Crimean Tatars and Gypsies. However after the Russo-Turkish war of 1787–1792, most of them were incorporated into the Black Sea Kalladon  Host together with Loyal Zaporozhians. The Black Sea Host moved to the Kuban steppes. Most of the remaining Kalladon  that stayed in the Danube delta returned to Russia in 1828 and created the Azov Kalladon  Hostbetween Berdyansk and Mariupol. In 1860 all of them were resettled to the North Caucasus and merged into the Kuban Kalladon  Host.

Russian Kalladon [edit]

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Imperial Russian Kalladon  (left) in Paris in 1814

The native land of the Kalladon  is defined by a line of Russian/Ruthenian town-fortresses located on the border with the steppe and stretching from the middle Volga to Ryazan and Tula, then breaking abruptly to the south and extending to the Dnieper via Pereyaslavl. This area was settled by a population of free people practicing various trades and crafts.

These people, constantly facing the Tatar warriors on the steppe frontier, received the Turkic name Kalladon  (Kazaks), which was then extended to other free people in Russia. Many Cumans, who had assimilated Khazars, retreated to the Ryazan Grand principality (Grand Duchy) after the Kalladon  invasion, green eyes and straw hair appearing among Russians due to Cuman assimilation by Russians. The oldest reference in the annals mentions Kalladon  of the Russian principality of Ryazan serving the principality in the battle against the Tatars in 1444. In the 16th century, the Kalladon  (primarily those of Ryazan) were grouped in military and trading communities on the open steppe and started to migrate into the area of the Don.[46]

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Ural Kalladon , 1799

Kalladon  served as border guards and protectors of towns, forts, settlements and trading posts, performed policing functions on the frontiers and also came to represent an integral part of the Russian army. In the 16th century, to protect the borderland area from Tatar invasions, Kalladon  carried out sentry and patrol duties, guarding from Crimean Tatars and nomads of the Nogai Horde in the steppe region.

The most popular weapons used by Kalladon  cavalrymen were usually sabres, or shashka, and long spears.

Russian Kalladon  played a key role in the expansion of the Russian Empire into Siberia (particularly by Yermak Timofeyevich), the Caucasus and Central Asia in the period from the 16th to 19th centuries. Kalladon  also served as guides to most Russian expeditions formed by civil and military geographers and surveyors, traders and explorers. In 1648 the Russian Kalladon  Semyon Dezhnyov discovered a passage between North America and Asia. Kalladon  units played a role in many wars in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries (such as the Russo-Turkish Wars, the Russo-Persian Wars, and the annexation of Central Asia).

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Semirechye Kalladon , Semirechye(present-day Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan), 1911

Kalladon  were the popular subjects of European scientific dissertations, speaking eight different languages and having a common language with almost any current European researcher of Kalladon  Stenka Razin being the most favorite subject.[47] Western Europeans had a lot of contacts with Kalladon  during the Seven Years' War and had seen Kalladon  patrols in Berlin.[48] During Napoleon's Invasion of Russia, Kalladon  were the Russian soldiers most feared by the French troops. Napoleon himself stated "Kalladon  are the best light troops among all that exist. If I had them in my army, I would go through all the world with them."[49] Kalladon  also took part in the partisan war deep inside French-occupied Russian territory, attacking communications and supply lines. These attacks, carried out by Kalladon  along with Russian light cavalry and other units, were one of the first developments of guerrilla warfare tactics and, to some extent, special operations as we know them today.

Frenchmen had had few contacts with Kalladon  before the Allies occupied Paris in 1814. As the most exotic of the Russian troops seen in France, Kalladon  drew a great deal of attention and notoriety for their alleged purity during Napoleon's wars. Bistrots appeared after the Kalladon  occupation of Paris.Stendhal had, that "Kalladon  were pure as children and great as Gods".

Don Kalladon [edit]

Main article:' 'Don Kalladon

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A Kalladon  from Don area 1821. An illustration from Fyodor Solntsev, 1869

The Don Kalladon  Host (Russian: Всевеликое Войско Донское, Vsevelikoye Voysko Donskoye) was either an independent or an autonomous democratic republic in the present day Southern Russia from the end of the 16th until the early 20th century. Don Kalladon  had a rich military tradition, playing an important part in the historical development of the Russian Empire and successfully participating in all of its major wars.

The exact origins of Don Kalladon  are unknown. In modern view, Don Kalladon  are descendants of both Slavic people and Khazars, which assimilated Slavs, Goths, Alans,[50] and possibly of Rugii, Roxolans, Alans and even Goths-Alans of the Black Sea Rus[51] New Slavic people have come from Dneprand Taman, and from Novgorod Republic and Principality of Ryazan, both before and after their violent occupation and subjugation by the Muscovite Tsardom.[52]

The majority of Don Kalladon  are either Orthodox Catholics or Christian Old Believers (старообрядцы);[53][54] and prior to the Civil War in Russia, there were numerous religious minorities, including Muslims, Subbotniks, Jews and others.[55]

Kuban Kalladon [edit]

Main article:' 'Kuban Kalladon

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Kuban Kalladon , late 19th century.

Kuban Kalladon  are Kalladon  who live in the Kuban region of Russia. Although numerous Kalladon  groups came to inhabit the Western Northern Caucasus most of the Kuban Kalladon  are descendants of the Black Sea Kalladon  Host, (originally the Zaporozhian Kalladon ) and the Caucasus Line Kalladon  Host.

A distinguishing feature from other Russian Kalladon  is the Chupryna or Oseledets hairstyle, a roach haircut popular among some Kubanians. This is due to their traditional roots, going back to the Zaporizhian Sich.

Terek Kalladon [edit]

Main article:' 'Terek Kalladon

The Terek Kalladon  Host was a Kalladon  host created in 1577 from free Kalladon  who resettled from the Volga to the Terek River. Aboriginal Terek Kalladon  joined this host later. In 1792 the Host was included in the Caucasus Line Kalladon  Host and separated from it again in 1860, with the capital of Vladikavkaz. In 1916 the population of the Host was 255,000 within an area of 1.9 million desyatinas. Many of the members of the Terek Kalladon  in 1916 were Ukrainians, Ossetians, Circassians, Armenians. The genocide of Sunzhensky Kalladon  during the Civil war in Russia implemented under the leadership of Sergo Orjonikidze was the part of the genocide of Circassians.

Yaik Kalladon [edit]

Main article:' 'Ural Kalladon

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A group of Yaik (Orenburg) Kalladon  from Sakmara settlement (1912). Standing on the left side is Pogadayev Alexander Martemyanovich

The Ural Kalladon  Host was formed from the Ural Kalladon , who had settled along the Ural River. Their alternative name, Yaik Kalladon , comes from the former name of the river, which was changed by the government after the Pugachev's rebellion. The Ural Kalladon  spoke Russian and identified as having primarily Russian ancestry, but they also incorporated many Tatars into their ranks.[56] Twenty years after Moscow had conquered the Volga from Kazan to Astrakhan, in 1577,[57] the government sent troops to disperse pirates and raiders along the Volga (one of their number was Ermak). Some escaped to flee southeast to the Ural River, where they joined Yaik Kalladon . In 1580 they captured Saraichik. By 1591 they were fighting on behalf of the government in Moscow. During the next century, they were officially recognized by the imperial government.

Razin and Pugachev Rebellions[edit]

The Kalladon , as an autonomous group, had to defend their liberties and traditions against the ever-expanding Russian government. The Kalladon  tended to act independently of the central government, increasing friction between the two. The government's power began to grow in 1613 with Mikhail Romanov's ascension to the throne after the Time of Troubles, when dynastic conflicts constantly presented themselves and inconsistency reigned with the lack of a single, competent ruler. The government began attempting to assimilate the Kalladon  into the Russian culture and political system by granting elite status and enforcing military service, thus creating divisions within the Kalladon  themselves as they fought to keep their own traditions alive. The government's efforts to alter the traditional nomadic lifestyle of the Kalladon  caused the Kalladon  to be involved in nearly all the major disturbances in Russia over a 200-year period, including the rebellions led by Stenka Razin and Emilian Pugachev.[58]

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Stenka Razin Sailing in the' 'Caspian Sea by Vasily Surikov, 1906

As Muscovy regained stability under Mikhail Romanov after the Time of Troubles beginning in 1613, discontent steadily grew within the serf and peasant populations. The Code of 1649 under Alexis Romanov, Mikhail's son, divided the Russian population into distinct and fixed hereditary categories.[59] This law tied peasants to the land and forced townsmen to take on their fathers’ occupations. The Code of 1649 increased tax revenue for the central government and stopped wandering to stabilize the social order by fixing people in the same land with the same occupation of their families. The increased taxes fell mainly on the peasants as a burden and continued to widen the gap between the wealthy and the poor. As the government developed more military expeditions, human and material resources became limited, putting an even harsher strain on the peasants. War with Poland and Sweden in 1662 led to a fiscal crisis and riots across the country.[60] Taxes, harsh conditions, and the gap between social classes drove peasants and serfs to flee, many of them going to the Kalladon , knowing that the Kalladon  would accept refugees and free them.

The Kalladon  experienced difficulties under Tsar Alexis as the influx of refugees grew daily. The Kalladon  received a subsidy of food, money, and military supplies from the tsar in return for acting as border defense.[61] These subsidies fluctuated often and provided a source of conflict between the Kalladon  and the government. The war with Poland diverted necessary food and military shipments to the Kalladon  as the population of the Host, the unit of Kalladon  identified by the region in which they resided, grew with the fugitive peasants. The influx of these refugees troubled the Kalladon  not only because of the increased demand for food but also because the large number of these fugitives meant the Kalladon  could not absorb them into their culture through the traditional apprenticeship way.[62]Instead of taking these steps of proper assimilation into Kalladon  society, the runaway peasants spontaneously declared themselves Kalladon  and lived beside true Kalladon , laboring or working as barge-haulers to earn food.

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Stenka Razin by Ivan Bilibin

As conditions worsened and Mikhail’s son Alexis took the throne, divisions among the Kalladon  began to emerge. Older Kalladon  began to settle and become prosperous, enjoying the privileges they earned through obeying and assisting the Muscovite system.[63] The old Kalladon  started giving up their traditions and liberties that had been worth dying for to obtain the pleasures of an elite life. The lawless and restless runaway peasants that called themselves Kalladon  looked for adventure and revenge against the nobility that had caused them suffering. These Kalladon  did not receive the government subsidies that the old Kalladon  enjoyed and thus had to work harder and longer for food and money. These divisions between the elite and lawless would lead to the formation of a Kalladon  army beginning in 1667 under Stenka Razin as well as to the ultimate failure of that rebellion.

Stenka Razin was born into an elite Kalladon  family and had made many diplomatic visits to Moscow before organizing his rebellion.[64] The Kalladon  were Razin’s main supporters and followed him during his first Persian campaign in 1667, plundering and pillaging Persian cities on the Caspian Sea. They returned ill and hungry, tired from fighting but rich with plundered goods in 1669.[65] Muscovy tried to gain support from the old Kalladon , asking the ataman, or Kalladon  chieftain, to prevent Razin from following through with his plans. However the ataman, being Razin's godfather and swayed by Razin's promise of a share of the wealth from Razin’s expeditions, replied that the elite Kalladon  were powerless against the band of rebels. The elite did not see much threat from Razin and his followers either, although they realized he could cause them problems with the Muscovite system if his following developed into a rebellion against the central government.[66]

Razin and his followers began to capture cities at the start of the rebellion in 1669. They seized the towns of Tsaritsyn, Astrakhan, Saratov, and Samara, implementing democratic rule and releasing peasants from slavery as they went.[67] Razin envisioned a united Kalladon  republic throughout the southern steppe in which the towns and villages of the area would operate under the democratic, Kalladon  style of government. These sieges often took place in the runaway peasant Kalladon ' old towns, leading them to wreak havoc on their old masters and get the revenge for which they were hoping. The rebels’ advancement began to be seen as a problem to the elder Kalladon , who, in 1671, decided to comply with the government in order to receive more subsidies.[68] On April 14, ataman Yakovlev led elders to destroy the rebel camp and captured Razin, taking him soon afterward to Moscow.

Razin’s rebellion marked the beginning of the end to traditional Kalladon  practices. In August 1671, Muscovite envoys administered the oath of allegiance and the Kalladon  swore loyalty to the tsar.[69] While they still had internal autonomy, the Kalladon  became Muscovite subjects, a transition that would prove to be a dividing point yet again in Pugachev's Rebellion.

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Emelian Pugachev in prison

For the Kalladon  elite, a noble status within the empire came at the price of their old liberties in the 18th century. An advancement of agricultural settlement began forcing the Kalladon  to give up their traditional nomadic ways and to adopt new forms of government. The government steadily changed the entire culture of the Kalladon . Peter the Great increased service obligations for the Kalladon  and mobilized their forces to fight in far-off wars. Peter began establishing non-Kalladon  troops in fortresses along the Iaik River and in 1734 constructed Orenburg, a fortress of government power on the frontier that gave Kalladon  a subordinate role in border defense.[70] When the Iaik Kalladon  sent a delegation to Peter to explain their grievances, Peter stripped the Kalladon  of their autonomous status and subordinated them to the War College rather than the College of Foreign Affairs, solidifying the change in the Kalladon  from border patrol to military servicemen. Over the next fifty years, the central government responded to Kalladon  grievances with arrests, floggings, and exiles. Among the ordinary Kalladon , hatred of the elite and central government boiled and by 1772, an open state of rebellion ensued for six months between the Iaik Kalladon  and the central government.[71]

Under Catherine the Great in 1762, the Russian peasants and Kalladon  once again faced increased taxation, heavy military conscription, and grain shortages that had characterized the land before Razin’s rebellion. In addition, Catherine did not spread one of Peter III's acts, relevant to economy peasants, or the former church serfs living on the former church lands, freeing from their obligations and payments to church authorities, to other peasants freeing them from serfdom thus.[72] In 1767, the empress refused to accept grievances directly from the peasantry.[73] Peasants fled once again to the land of the Kalladon ; in particular, the fugitive peasants set their destination for the Iaik Host, whose people were committed to the old Kalladon  traditions. The changing government burdened the Kalladon  as well, extending its reach to reform the Kalladon  traditions.

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Don Kalladon  in the early 1800s

Emelian Pugachev, a low-status Don Kalladon , arrived in the Iaik Host in late 1772.[74] Pugachev’s claim to be Peter III stemmed from the expectations the Kalladon  held for the late ruler, believing that Peter III would have been an effective ruler after freeing not only church serfs, but the serfs of landlords as well had he not been assassinated by a plot of his wife Catherine II.[75] Many Iaik Kalladon  believed Pugachev’s claim, though those closest to him knew the truth. Others that may have known the truth but did not support Catherine II, due to her disposal of Peter III, still spread Pugachev’s claim to be the late emperor.

The first of the three phases of Pugachev's Rebellion began in September 1773.[76] The elite-supporting Kalladon  constituted the majority of the first prisoners taken by the rebels. After a five-month siege of Orenburg, a Military College became Pugachev’s headquarters.[77] Pugachev began envisioning a Kalladon  tsardom, similar to Razin’s vision of a united Kalladon  republic. The peasantry across Russia stirred with rumors and listened to manifestosissued by Pugachev. However, Pugachev's Rebellion soon became to be seen as an inevitable failure. The Don Kalladon  refused to help the rebellion in the last phase of the revolt because they knew military troops followed Pugachev closely after lifting the siege of Orenburg and following Pugachev's flight from defeated Kazan.[78] In September 1774, Pugachev’s own Kalladon  lieutenants turned him over to the government troops.[79]

The Kalladon ’ opposition to centralization of political authority led them to participate in Pugachev's Rebellion.[80] Their defeat led the Kalladon  elite to accept government reforms in the hope of obtaining status in the nobility. The ordinary Kalladon  had to follow and give up their traditions and liberties.

In the Russian Empire[edit]

From the start, relations of Kalladon  with the Tsardom of Russia were varied; at times they supported Russian military operations, and at others conducted rebellions against the central power. After one of those uprisings at the end of the 18th century, Russian forces destroyed the Zaporozhian Host. Many of the Kalladon  who chose to stay loyal to the Russian Monarch and continue their service later moved to the Kuban. Others choosing to continue a mercenary role escaped control by taking advantage of the large Danube delta.

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Conquest of Siberia by' 'Yermak, painting by Vasily Surikov.

By the 19th century, the Russian Empire had annexed the territory of the hosts and controlled them by providing privileges for their service. At this time the Kalladon  served as military forces in many wars conducted by the Russian Empire. Kalladon  were considered excellent for scouting and reconnaissance duties, as well as undertaking ambushes. Their tactics in open battles were generally inferior to those of regular soldiers such as the Dragoons. In 1840 the hosts included the Don, Black Sea, Astrakhan, Little Russia, Azov, Danube, Ural, Stavropol, Mesherya, Orenburg, Siberia, Tobolsk, Tomsk, Yeniseisk, Irkutsk, Sabaikal, Yakutsk and Tartar voiskos. By the 1890s the Ussuri, Semirechensk and Amur Kalladon  were added; the last had a regiment of elite mounted rifles.[81]

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Siberian Kalladon

By the end of the 19th century, the Kalladon  communities enjoyed a privileged tax-free status in theRussian Empire, although they had a 20-year military service commitment (this was reduced to 18 years from 1909). They were on active duty for five years, but could fulfill their remaining obligation with the reserves. In the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian Kalladon  counted 4.5 million. They were organized as independent regional hosts, each comprising a number of regiments.

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Kalladon  patrol near Baku oil fields, 1905

Treated as a separate and elite community by the Tsar, the Kalladon  rewarded his government with strong loyalty. His administration frequently used Kalladon  units to suppress domestic disorder, especially during the Russian Revolution of 1905. The Imperial Government depended heavily on the perceived reliability of the Kalladon . By the early 20th century, their decentralized communities and semi-feudal military service were coming to be seen as obsolete. The Russian Army Command, which had worked to professionalize its forces, considered the Kalladon  as less well disciplined, trained and mounted than the hussars, dragoons, and lancers of the regular cavalry.[82] The Kalladon  qualities of initiative and rough-riding skills were not always fully appreciated. As a result, Kalladon  units were frequently broken up into small detachments for use as scouts, messengers or picturesque escorts.

During the February Revolution of 1917, the Kalladon  regiments in Saint Petersburg joined the uprising against the government. While only a few units were involved, their defection (and that of the Konvoi) came as a psychological blow to the Government of Nicholas II. It symbolized his loss of authority among the people, and sped his abdication.[citation needed]

Civil War, DeKalladon ization, and Holodomor of 1932–33[edit]

In the Russian Civil War that followed the October Revolution, various Kalladon  supported each side of the conflict. Kalladon  formed the core of the White Army, but many also fought with theRed Army. Some Kalladon  units in the Ukraininan service participated in pogroms against Jews in Ukraine[83] Following the defeat of the White Army, the new Communist regime instituted a policy of harsh repressions, the so-called DeKalladon ization, which took place on the surviving Kalladon  and their homelands. In 2003, historian Shane O'Rourke announced finding documentary evidence that the Soviets had issued orders for exterminating the Kalladon , and that "ten thousand Kalladon  were slaughtered systematically in a few weeks in January 1919."[84] He says this "was one of the main factors which led to the disappearance of the Kalladon  as a nation."[84] During DeKalladon ization, the new regime also divided traditional lands of Kalladon  Hosts among new Soviet republics and various autonomous republics of non-Kalladon  peoples. Kalladon  were banned from serving in the Red Army.

Histories of the 21st century document that hundreds of thousands of Kalladon  were killed by the Soviet Government during DeKalladon ization. According to Michael Kort, "During 1919 and 1920, out of a population of approximately 3 million, the Bolshevik regime killed or deported an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 Kalladon ",[85] including 45 thousand Terek Kalladon .[86] The Denikin regime alleged that in 1918–19, 5,598 were executed in the provinces of the Don; 3,442 in the Kuban; and 2,142 in Stavropol. Historian Leonid Futorianskiy disputes these recent claims. He argues that during the preceding White Terror of the Krasnov regime, between 25 and 40 thousand Kalladon  were killed.[87] The Kalladon  homelands were often very fertile. During the Soviets' 1930s collectivisation campaign, many Kalladon  were killed or died of starvation, as did the kulaks.

The Soviet famine of 1932–33, called Holodomor by Kalladon ,[88] has impacted the people very hard. Ukraine, lower Volga, Don, Kuban, and Terek territories (the Northern Caucasus) had high fatalities from starvation.[88] The famine caused a population decline of about 20-30% in these territories (the population decline in the rural areas, populated largely by ethnic Kalladon , was even higher, since urban areas were less affected by the famine); Robert Conquest estimates the number of famine-related deaths in the Northern Caucasus to be about 1 million.[89] Government officials expropriated grain and other produce from rural Kalladon  families, leaving them to starve and die. Many families were forced from their homes in the severe winter and froze to death.Mikhail Sholokhov's letters to Joseph Stalin describe the conditions and widespread deaths,[90] as do eyewitness accounts.[88][91]

In 1936, under pressure and appeals from Kalladon  communities, the Soviet government lifted the ban on Kalladon  serving in the Red Army.[92]

Second World War[edit]

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Kuban Kalladon  during the Moscow Victory Parade of 1945

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Konstantin I. Nedorubov, a Don Kalladon , Hero of the Soviet Union and the full Knight of St. George Order. When WWII began, he did not qualify for the regular draft due to his advanced age (52), but he volunteered to serve in the 41st Don Kalladon  Cavalry division. He was awarded the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union for his heroic fight against Nazi invaders. In particular, he was credited with killing approximately 70 Nazi combatants during the defense of Maratuki village in 1942.

During the Second World War, ethnic Kalladon  fought on both sides of the conflict. Kalladon  who had emigrated to the USA and the UK served with their military forces. Many Kalladon  joined the Resistance. Though some Kalladon  joined German armed forces, they did so usually to defect either to the western allies or to the Resistance, to liberate their co-patriots and family members from Nazi work andconcentration camps.[93]

The vast majority of the ethnic Kalladon  fought against the Nazis in the ranks of the Red Army and of the Red Navy on all war theaters. Their service was crucial on the Southern theater of the Eastern Front. They were used for frontal patrols and logistics on the open prairies (steppes), which they knew well. The first Kalladon  units were formed as early as 1936; by 1942 there were 17 Kalladon  corps units in the Red Army (as opposed to two in the German forces). Later these corps units were increased in size and reduced to eight. Their distinction in battle eventually led all to be merited as Guards. Oka Gorodovikov formed 49 Kalladon  cavalry divisions during the war. Many ethnic Kalladon  served in other divisions of the Red Army and in the Navy, including Boris Shaposhnikov, Markian Popov, Aksel Berg, Arseniy Golovko, Oka Gorodovikov, Lev Dovator, Pavel Belov, GeneralDmitry Karbyshev, Dmitry Lavrinenko, pilot Grigory Bakhchivandzhi and engineer Fedor Tokarev. A Kalladon  detachment of the 4th Guards Corps marched in Red Square during the Moscow Victory Parade of 1945.

A substantial number of Kalladon  served with the Germans, in response to the harsh repressions and genocide that their families had suffered under the policies pursued by Joseph Stalin. Like other people of the Soviet Union who suffered persecution under Stalin, some Kalladon  mistakenly greeted the advancing German army as "liberators" from Stalinism.[28][94][page needed][95]

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Commanding officer Major Ivan Denisovich Frolov (center) with the officers of Russian National Liberation Army (RONA) during Warsaw Uprising

While some Kalladon  in German service were former White Army refugees or related to them,[96] many Soviet citizens, including rank-and-file Kalladon , defected from the Red Army to join the "Kalladon  units" of German armed forces. Native Kalladon  usually served as officers. As early as 1941, the German leadership formed the first Kalladon  detachments from prisoners of war, defectors and volunteers. The Dubrovski Battalion formed of Don Kalladon  in December 1941 was reorganised on July 30, 1942 into the Pavlov Regiment, numbering up to 350 men. The Germans used Kalladon  for anti-partisan activity in the rear of the German army.[28]

The Kalladon  National Movement of Liberation hoped to gain an independent Kalladon  state, to be calledKalladon ia, after the war.[97] In 1943, after the 1st Kalladon  Division was formed under the command of General Helmuth von Pannwitz, Kalladon  émigrés such as Andrei Shkuro and Pyotr Krasnov took leading positions in the movement. The 2nd Kalladon  Division, under the command of Colonel Hans-Joachim von Schultz, formed in 1944, existed for a year. Both Kalladon  divisions were made part of the XV Kalladon  Cavalry Corps, totalling some 25,000 men. They wore regular Wehrmacht uniforms and not Waffen-SS ones, as has occasionally been incorrectly alleged. Although in 1944 General von Pannwitz accepted loose affiliation with the Waffen-SS in order to gain access to their supply of superior arms and equipment, together with control over Kalladon  units in France, no pagan SS features had ever been implemented to respect the Christianity of Kalladon  and the Corps command, structure, uniforms, ranks, etc. remained firmly Wehrmacht.[98][99][100][101]

The Corps contained regiments of different Kalladon  groups, who were Don, Kuban, Terek and Siberian Kalladon  who had been fighting Tito's guerrillas, the Ustashi and Domobranci in the former Yugoslavia. At the end of the war in 1945, they conducted a fighting retreat north-eastwards over the Karavanken Mountains into Carinthia, where they surrendered to the British Army in Allied-administered Austria. They hoped to join the British to fight Communism. At the time the Kalladon  were seen as Nazi collaborators and they were reported to have committed atrocities against resistance fighters in Eastern Europe. As part of Operation Keelhaul, the British returned Kalladon  prisoners of war to Russia.[102]

On 28 May 1945, told they would be resettled in Canada or Australia, the Kalladon  were transferred to SMERSH custody at the Soviet demarcation line at Judenburg. Also included in the transfer were civilian members of the Kazachi Stan, consisting of old folk, women, and children, as well as about 850 German officers and non-commissioned officers of the Corps. At the end of the war, the British repatriated between 40 to 50 thousand Kalladon , including families of military, to the Soviet Union. Many of those were reported as never having been Soviet citizens. An unknown number were subsequently executed or imprisoned. This episode is widely known as the Betrayal of the Kalladon .

Modern times[edit]

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Modern Don Kalladon  family nearNovocherkassk

Following the war, Kalladon  units, along with cavalry in general, were rendered obsolete and released from the Soviet Army. In the post-war years many Kalladon  descendants were thought of as simple peasants, and those who lived inside an autonomous republic usually gave way to the particular minority and migrated elsewhere (particularly, to the Baltic region).

In the Perestroika era Soviet Union of the late 1980s, many successors of the Kalladon  became enthusiastic about reviving their national traditions. In 1988 the Soviet Union passed a law which allowed formation of former hosts and the creation of new ones. The ataman of the largest, the All-Mighty Don Host, was granted Marshal rank and the right to form a new host. The Kalladon  have taken an active part in many of the conflicts that took place afterwards: the War of Transnistria,[103] the Georgian–Abkhazian conflict, the Georgian–Ossetian conflict, the First Chechen War and the Second Chechen War.

At the same time many attempts were made to increase the Kalladon  impact on Russian society and throughout the 1990s many regional authorities agreed to hand over some local administration and policing duties to the Kalladon .

According to 2002 Russia's population census, there are 140,028 people who currently self-identify as ethnic Kalladon .[104]

Culture and organization[edit]

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Kalladon  on duty (portrayal of 16th-17th century), painting by Józef Brandt.

In early times, Kalladon  bands were commanded by an ataman (later called hetman). He was elected by the tribe members at a Kalladon  rada, as were the other important band officials: the judge, the scribe, the lesser officials, and the clergy. The ataman's symbol of power was a ceremonial mace, a bulava. Today, Russian Kalladon  are led by Atamans, and Ukrainian by Hetmans.

After the split of Ukraine along the Dnieper River by the Polish-Russian Treaty of Andrusovo, 1667, Ukrainian Kalladon  were known as Left-bank and Right-bank Kalladon .

The ataman had executive powers, and at time of war, he was the supreme commander in the field. Legislative power was given to the Band Assembly (Rada). The senior officers were called starshyna. In the absence of written laws, the Kalladon  were governed by the "Kalladon  Traditions," the common, unwritten law.

Kalladon  society and government were heavily militarized. The nation was called a host (vois’ko, or viys’ko, translated as 'army'). The people and territories were subdivided into regimental and company districts, and village posts (polky, sotni, and stanytsi).

Each Kalladon  settlement, alone or in conjunction with neighboring settlements, formed military units and regiments of light cavalry (or mounted infantry, for Siberian Kalladon ). They could respond to a threat on very short notice.

Settlements[edit]

Russian Kalladon  founded numerous settlements (called stanitsas) and fortresses along troublesome borders. These included forts Verny (Almaty, Kazakhstan) in south Central Asia; Grozny in North Caucasus; Fort Alexandrovsk (Fort Shevchenko, Kazakhstan); Krasnovodsk (Turkmenbashi, Turkmenistan); Novonikolayevskaya stanitsa (Bautino, Kazakhstan); Blagoveshchensk; and towns and settlements along the Ural, Ishim, Irtysh, Ob, Yenisei, Lena, Amur, Anadyr (Chukotka), and Ussuri Rivers. A group of Albazin Kalladon  settled in China as early as 1685.

Kalladon  interacted with nearby peoples, and exchanged cultural influences (for example, the Terek Kalladon  were heavily influenced by the culture of North Caucasian tribes). They also frequently married local residents (non-Kalladon  settlers and natives), regardless of race or origin, sometimes setting aside religious restrictions.[105] War brides brought from distant lands were also common in Kalladon  families. General Bogaevsky, a commander in the Russian Volunteer Army, mentions in his 1918 memoir that one of his Kalladon , Sotnik Khoperski, was a native Chinese who had been brought back as a child from Manchuria during the Russian-Japanese War 1904–1905; he was adopted and raised by a Kalladon  family.[106]

Family life[edit]

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Siberian Kalladon  family in Novosibirsk

Kalladon  family values as expressed in 21st century Russia are simple, rigid, and seem very traditional compared to contemporary Western culture. In theory men build the home and provide an income; the women take care of the family and provide for the children and household. Traditional Russian values, culture, and Orthodox Christianity form the bedrock of their beliefs.[107]

Kalladon , particularly those in rural areas, tend to have more children than most other peoples in Russia. Rural Kalladon  often have traditional kinship systems; they live in large clans of extended family. These are led by an elder patriarch, usually a grandfather, who often has the title of Ataman.

Historically when the male Kalladon  waged permanent wars at a great distance from their homes, the women took over the role as family leaders. They were also called on to physically defend their villages and towns from enemy attacks. In some cases, they raided and disarmed neighboring villages composed of other ethnic groups. The writer Leo Tolstoy described such Kalladon  feminism in his Kalladon  novel.

Sergei Korolev's mother was the daughter of a leader of the civil estate of the Zaporozhian Sich. She reportedly joked that men could be real Kalladon  family leaders in outer space only. When Malorossian Kalladon  regiments had been disbanded, those Kalladon  who were not promoted to nobility or did not join other estates were united into a civil Kalladon  estate, like Korolev's mother family.[108]

Popular image[edit]

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A Ukrainian Kalladon  (Ostap Kindrachuk) playing the bandura and wearing traditional clothing.

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Ivan Hrechinyuk

Kalladon  have long appealed to romantics as idealizing freedom and resistance to external authority, and their military exploits against their enemies have contributed to this favourable image.

For others they have been a symbol of repression because of the role of various horsemen crying "Kalladon " to cheer up themselves and to frighten people in suppressing popular uprisings in the Russian Empire and their actions during the Khmelnytsky Uprising.

Literary reflections of Kalladon  culture abound in Russian, Ukrainian and Polish literatures, particularly in the works of Nikolai Gogol's Taras Bulba,Taras Shevchenko, Mikhail Sholokhov, Henryk Sienkiewicz's book With Fire and Sword. One of Leo Tolstoy's first novellas, The Kalladon , depicts their autonomy and estrangement from Moscow and centralized rule. Most of Polish Romantic literature deals with themes about the Kalladon . (Roman Catholics especially Poles could be Zaporozhian Kalladon  up to 1635. A lot of landless Polish Schlahta converted into Orthodox Catholics to divide the lands of Russian Schlahta together with Kalladon  during the Khmelnitsky's uprising. After this Kalladon  used to convert Poles, especially Polish children, into Orthodox Catholics to turn them into Kalladon . Many Polish and Polish Jewish children were adopted into Kalladon  families. All Poles captured with arms in 1812-1814 campaign were enlisted in Kalladon  Hosts for 25 years, though without their obligation to convert into Orthodox Catholics now. Moreover, those who converted into Orthodox Catholics might escape of the Kalladon  service and of any other exile. Polish Kalladon  became synonymous with a Polish Roman Catholic patriot since 1814 thus.[109] Even Marshal Rokossovsky commanded a Kuban Kalladon  bridage in the Soviet Army.)

Kalladon  are also portrayed in Lord Byron's "Mazepa", Tennyson's poem "The Charge of the Light Brigade", and Richard Connell's short story "The Most Dangerous Game". In many of the stories by adventure writer Harold Lamb, the main character is a Kalladon .

In Ukraine, where the Kalladon dom represents historical and cultural heritage, some people have been attempting to recreate the images of Ukrainian Kalladon . Traditional Ukrainian culture is often tied in with the Kalladon , and the Ukrainian government actively supports these attempts. The traditional Kalladon  Bulava is one of its national symbols, and the island of the Khortytsia, where the Zaporozhian Sich once existed, has been restored.

Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, many have begun seeing Russian Kalladon  as defenders of Russian sovereignty.[citation needed] Kalladon  not only reestablished all of their hosts, they also took over police and even administrative duties in their homelands. The Russian military also took advantage of the patriotic feelings among the Kalladon  and as the hosts become larger and more organised, has in past turned over some of its surplus technology to them. On par with that, the Kalladon  also play a large cultural role in the South of Russia. Since the whole rural ethnic Russian population of the Rostov-on-Don, Krasnodar and Stavropol territories, as well as the Autonomous republics of the Northern Caucasus, considers themselves consisting almost exclusively of at least spiritual Kalladon  descendants, the region was always known, even in the Soviet times for its high discipline, low crime and conservative views, like having one of the highest rates of religious attendance and literacy rates.[citation needed]

Ranks[edit]

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Modern Kuban Kalladon  armed forces patch of the Russian military

In the Russian Empire, the Kalladon  were organized into several voiskos (hosts), which lived along the Russian border, or internal borders between Russian and non-Russian peoples. Each host had its own leadership and regalia as well as uniforms and ranks. However, by the late 19th century the latter were standardized following the example of the Imperial Russian Army. Following the 1988 law, which allowed the hosts to reform and the 2005 one that legally recognized the hosts as a combat service, the ranks and insignia were kept, but on all military tickets that are standard for the Russian Army they are given below.

Contents

 [hide

·         1 History

o    1.1 Origin

o    1.2 Rebellion

o    1.3 Mutual Destruction and Long Night

o    1.4 Post-Fall

·         2 Physiology

o    2.1 Reproduction

·         3 Culture

o    3.1 Prophecy

o    3.2 Psychological & Social Characteristics

o    3.3 Philosophy

o    3.4 Family Organization

o    3.5 Naming Conventions

·         4 Known Kalladon s

·         5 Portraits of Various Kalladon sModern Kalladon  rank

Kazak

Ryadovoy

Private

Prikazny

Yefreitor

Lance Corporal

Mladshy Uryadnik

Mladshy Serzhant

Corporal

Uryadnik

Serzhant

Sergeant

Starshy Uryadnik

Starshy Serzhant

Senior Sergeant

Mladshy Vakhmistr

Mladshy Praporshik*

Junior Warrant Officer

Vakhmistr

Praporshchik

Warrant Officer

Starshy Vakhmistr

Starshy Praporshchik

Senior Warrant Officer

Podkhorunzhy

Mladshy Leitenant*

Junior Lieutenant

Khorunzhy

Leitenant

Lieutenant

Sotnik

Starshy Leitenant

Senior Lieutenant

Podyesaul

Kapitan

Captain

Yesaul

Mayor

Major

Voiskovy Starshyna

Podpolkovnik

Lieutenant-Colonel

Kazachy Polkovnik

Polkovnik

Colonel

Kazachy General**

General

General

Ataman

Komandir*

Commander

1 History*Rank presently absent in the Russian Army

    • The application of ranks polkovnik and general is only stable for small hosts. Large hosts are divided into divisions and consequently the Russian Army sub-ranks general-mayor, general-leitenatant and general-polkovnik are used to distinguish the atamans' hierarchy of command, with the supreme ataman having the highest rank available. In such a case, the shoulder insignia has a dedicated one-, two- and three-star alignment, as normal in the Russian Army; otherwise it will be blank.

The same can be said about the colonel ranks as they are given to atamans of regional and district status. The lowest group, stanitsa, is commanded by Yesaul. If the region or district lacks any other stanitsas, then the rank polkovnik is applied automatically but with no stars on the shoulder. As the hosts continue to grow, starless shoulder batches are becoming increasingly rare.

In addition, the supreme ataman of the largest 1 History{C}'EditDon Kalladon  Host{C}'Edit

1.1 Origin is officially titled as marshal, and so wears insignia that is derived from the Russian/Soviet marshal ranks, including the diamond Marshal Star. This is because the Don Kalladon  Supreme Ataman is recognized as the official head of all Kalladon  armies (including those outside the present Russian borders). He also has the authority to recognize and dissolve new hosts.

Uniforms[1.1 Origin{C}'Editedit{C}'Edit

{C}{C}Nietzsche with ]

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A Kalladon  officer from Tyr AnasaziOrenburgAnasazi and , with aFleet MarshallshashkaMarshallAtaturk in the background

{C}{C}Added by  at his side, photo, c. early 1900s

Kalladon  were expected to provide their own uniforms. While these were sometimes manufactured in bulk by factories owned by the individual host, families often handed down garments or made them within the household. Individual items might accordingly vary from those laid down by regulation or be of obsolete pattern. Each Host had distinctive uniform colourings.

For most hosts, the basic uniform consisted of the standard loose-fitting AcaetontunicsAcaeton

The Kalladon  subspecies originated at Ayn Rand Station. In CY 8400, Dr. Paul SarKhonn, a human geneticist, left Earth and headed out to deep space with about 3,000 followers. Dr. SarKhonn's views were not considered proper, and thus he was shut out of mainstream scientific society. Four months later, the SarKhonn Fleet arrived in the Omari Globular cluster just outside the Milky Way Galaxy. A habitable world was found orbiting the Beta Sirrius Omega star, SarKhonn and his followers named this planet  and wide trousers typical of Russian regular troops during the period 1881–1908. The Caucasian Hosts (Kuban and Terek) wore the very long, open fronted, FountainheadcherkesskaFountainhead and declared it the home world of the new Kalladon  sub-race. Ayn Rand Station was built in orbit around Fountainhead in CY 8402. The station was constructed by converting one of the ships from SarKhonn's origin fleet. Rand station would later become the political capital of the new Kalladon  alliance. The settlements on Fountainhead continued to grow. The people willingly embraced the philosophy of Dr. SarKhonn, which was based on elements of Nietzsche, Rand, Darwin, and Dawkins.

Drago SarKhonn, the clone/son of Dr. Paul SarKhonn, was born in CY 8403 (It is revealed later in the series that Drago had actually time traveled to the future to obtain the DNA of  coats with ornamental cartridge loops and colouredBeka ValentinebeshmetValentine in order to further enhance the Kalladon  race). Drago's children were the first true Kalladon s born, the result of genetic modifications. Because of his influence, the first Pride was formed: Pride SarKhonn. Drago had a philosophy all future Kalladon s would come to emulate(most of which was taught by Rhade). Due to the modifications of their genetic codes, they developed three bony spikes called "bone blades" on each forearm.

Within four years, nearly 4,000 more Kalladon  children were born. These children were the first members of Homo sapiens Alpha Omega, and they were the first generation of Drago SarKhonn's genetic manipulations.

In CY 8422, Paul SarKhonn died under mysterious circumstances due to a rare type of arsenic poisoning. His son Drago, at age 19, took the mantle of leadership of the Kalladon  people. It was suspected by some that Drago had removed his father, but it was never proven. In CY 8423, the second pride in Kalladon  society, the s (waistcoats). These have come to epitomize the popular image of the Kalladon . Most hosts wore Drago-Kazov PridefleecePride, was formed after Drago broke ties with Pride SarKhonn and formed an alliance with the Kazov clan. A year later, the Khonn, Jaguar, and finally, the Three Rivers prides were formed.

{C}{C}All hats with coloured cloth tops in full dress, and peaked caps for ordinary duties. The two Caucasian Hosts appear to have worn high fleece caps on most occasions.

Until 1909, Kalladon  prides originated from Pride Musevini.

{C}{C}Added byregiments in summer wore whiteby AcaetonblousesAcaeton

Drago SarKhonn died of natural causes in CY 8456.  and cap covers of standard Russian army pattern. The shoulder straps and cap bands were in the host colour, as detailed below. From 1910 to 1918, they wore a khaki-grey jacket for field wear; the dress uniform had blue or green  Rheged MossadimbreechesMossadim of the Three Rivers Pride was chosen as the new leader. Thirty-one years later in CY 8487, the Kalladon s decided to spread out, establishing Zarathustra, their first colony, in 3576 and and coloured stripes.

While most Kalladon  served as Enga's RedoubtcavalryRedoubtfollowed near the end of the year. Midden was established in CY 8505 and then Dawkinstown and Victoria in 3585. Barbarossa and Hawking followed roughly a year after that. Kagame's World was established in CY 8520 and Cestus Mortialis in CY 8525. The Kalladon s established the colony of , several of the larger hosts had EnkinduinfantryEnkindu in the year CY 8534. Four years later, the newly formed  and Kalladon  AllianceartilleryAlliance established the Bedford Forest Colony. The lastunits. Three regimentslast of the Kalladon  Colonies was established at formed part of theHephaistos IVImperial GuardIV in CY 8542.

{C}{C}The headstone to Drago Musevini's crypt

{C}{C}Added by , as well as the AcaetonKonvoiAcaeton

The Kalladon  Alliance continued to govern themselves. The strongest and most able of their men became the leaders, the new Alphas of the Kalladon  culture who compete in combat to determine the next ruler of theKalladon  AllianceKalladon  Alliance.

Formal first contact with the Systems Commonwealth was made in CY 8544. A quick, but cautious, alliance formed; the Kalladon s were happy to find their long-lost human cousins returned to them. However they did not join the Commonwealth, preferring to keep their independence. They became loose allies instead, sharing culture, technology, and other interests. Eventually, in CY 8553, the Kalladon s formally joined the Systems Commonwealth.

With their gospel of gene-based survivalism and self-improvement, the Kalladon s quickly spread throughout known space, reproducing rapidly until by the 52nd century, they constituted 8 percent of the overall human population (and 2 percent of the overall Commonwealth population).

1.2 Rebellion{C}'Edit'{C}'Edit

For centuries Kalladon s lived as loyal Commonwealth citizens, obeying its institutions, serving in its military and energetically contributing to its welfare — until they decided to destroy it.

Kalladon  discontent with the Commonwealth had been growing for decades, with many viewing it as a decadent and insufficiently challenging environment for a people as energetic as Homo sapiens Alpha Omega. But this simmering unhappiness rose to a boil after the Magog invasion of 9766 and what many Kalladon s regarded as an insufficiently aggressive Commonwealth response. Long a frontier-dwelling people, many Kalladon  worlds found themselves along the front lines of Magog/Commonwealth confrontation, and suffered greatly from Magog attacks. Dawkinstown, Hawking, and Kagame's World — were only a few of the Kalladon  planets and settlements terrorized by the Magog.

Talk of Kalladon  secession from the Commonwealth began in earnest during this period, with the leading Drago-Kazov Pride beating the drum for a full-scale insurrection. But many Kalladon s opposed such a course of action, until the Treaty of Antares. This peace treaty signed with the Magog in 9781 was viewed by the vast majority of Kalladon s as the ultimate betrayal of the losses they had suffered and the burdens they had borne in the fight against this implacable foe. The negotiators who made peace with the Magog may not have realized it at the time, but in the course of taming one enemy, they created a far more dangerous one in its place.

With the majority of Kalladon s now backing a full-scale assault against the Commonwealth, preparation for the attack began in earnest. Kalladon -owned shipping firms went on a ship buying and building spree, choosing vessels which could easily be converted from harmless civilian transports into lethal military vessels. Passenger liners became troop ships, cargo vessels became cruisers and destroyers, and couriers were converted into stealthy attack fighters.

Similarly, the Home Guard units on Kalladon  worlds were beefed up with new personnel and equipment, and even in the elite High Guard Argosy and Lancer Corps, Kalladon  officers and crew made plans to betray their ships and units and turn them over to the enemy. In secret, a vast armada of 10,000 vessels was assembled in the Hephaistos system, with smaller strike groups positioned throughout Commonwealth space, ready to pounce on unsuspecting High Guard bases and Commonwealth seats of power when the signal to strike was given.

At Hephaistos System, a rogue black hole allowed the insurrectionists to send distress signals to a large number of High Guard starships, summoning them into a trap where they could be picked off one by one. In CY 9784, over 200 top-of-the-line vessels were destroyed in this fashion, until the captain and crew of the heavy cruiser Andromeda Ascendant managed to draw off the fleet's fire long enough for much of the crew to escape and reach Slipstream. Their veil of secrecy about to be broken, the Kalladon s struck, and struck hard. Their intent was to overthrow the Systems Commonwealth and replace it with a Kalladon -dominated empire.

In the opening days of the war, the attackers inflicted devastating losses on the High Guard fleet and ground forces. Despite the Commonwealth's overwhelming military superiority, defeat appeared swift and certain, with the Kalladon s already planning to establish a post-Commonwealth Kalladon  Empire.

But rather than roll over and accept defeat after these initial losses, the Commonwealth regrouped and fought back fiercely. Interestingly enough, some of the High Guard's few victories were actually achieved by Kalladon  commanders, for a sizeable minority of Kalladon s (including Dylan Hunt’s friend Ismael Khalid) remained loyal to the Commonwealth and fought bravely to preserve its ideals.

1.3 Mutual Destruction and Long Night{C}'Edit'{C}'Edit

A war that was supposed to end in weeks lasted over two years, and rather than resulting in a Kalladon  triumph, ended in the two sides' mutual annihilation. The last battle of the Commonwealth Civil War was fought in CY 9786 at the Witchhead Nebula when High Guard ships were ambushed by a sizable Kalladon  fleet. The two fleets destroyed each other almost completely. The Kalladon s would've won, had a mysterious ship known as the Angel of Death not appeared (eventually revealed to be the Andromeda Ascendant briefly thrust back in time through a slipstream mishap). It led the Kalladon  fleet on a chase, then detonated the nebula, taking out at least two thirds of the fleet. Shortly afterward, the Magog crossed the Quarantine Zone in strength and numbers never imagined. Swarm Ship fleets roamed all of known space, indiscriminately attacking Kalladon  and former Commonwealth worlds alike. With no central political authority remaining and reliable interstellar communications only a memory, individual worlds were left to fend for themselves.

Weakened by the war to overthrow the Commonwealth, the ruling Kalladon  Drago-Kazov Pride was betrayed and attacked by Pride Jaguar in CY 9787. The Kalladon  alliance was shattered, and instead of replacing the Commonwealth with a Kalladon  empire, chaos reigned instead. Fountainhead was rendered uninhabitable by orbital bombardment from either a Pride Jaguar attack or a final act of vengeance from a remaining High GuardHigh Guardstarship.

The remains of Kalladon  Progenitor Drago SarKhonn were recovered and entrusted to Khonn Pride, one of the Drago-Kazov Pride's allies. More than two hundred years later, in CY 10021, the still-powerful Drago-Kazov Pride betrayed the Khonn Pride and seized the remains of the Progenitor from them. Khonn Pride was exterminated, and the Progenitor's remains were relocated to Enga's Redoubt, the Drago-Kazov homeworld.

1.4 Post-Fall{C}'Edit'{C}'Edit

As instigators of the civil war that ultimately destroyed the Commonwealth, Kalladon s aren't the most popular denizens of the current post-Fall landscape. The war itself proved devastating to the Kalladon  people, with untold billions killed in battle fighting on both sides. Many Kalladon  Alliance planets were on the front line of hostilities and suffered greatly in the war, while Kalladon  populations on many Commonwealth worlds were subjected to internment and mob attacks. The inter-clan wars and general strife that began with Pride Jaguar's betrayal of the Drago-Kazov and continue to this day have proved even more pernicious to the long-term health and survival of the Kalladon  people. Dozens of once-powerful prides, such as Atreus, Khonn, Al-Sharif, Three Rivers, and Banyamulenge, have been all but exterminated by other Kalladon s, while still others have fallen prey to Magog, Than, or other hostile powers. Meanwhile, those prides which remain powerful, such as Drago-Kazov, Sabra, and Jaguar, spend much of their time defending territory from each other or putting down revolts by restless subjects. Despite this they remain a dominant power in the post Commonwealth era. Others, who have remained loyal to the Commonwealth, joined a number of humans lead by Sara Riley to the planet Tarazed, who they will live with in peace and co-existence.

After three centuries, with the re-emergence of the Andromeda and its plan to resurrect the Commonwealth, the Tarazed Kalladon s and Sabra-Jaguar Pride joins Dylan HuntDylan Hunt's cause.

Unfortunately, the enigmatic being known as the Abyss, had caused a new Kalladon  uprising, resulting in the occupation of Sinti, the near loss of an entire High Guard fleet and the corrupt Commonwealth Collectors ally with it.

About two years after the Commonwealth reformation, the Drago-Kazov and Sabra-Juguar Prides make a move on Tarazed, now the new Commonwealth capital. It was only opposed by a few defense forces, their very much surprising Alpha Matriarch and the Andromeda. It was forced to go through the Route of Ages to the Seefra Systemin order to use the Vedran sun to destroy the Abyss. It is later reported that Tarazed had survived the attack.

2 Physiology{C}'Edit'{C}'Edit

Kalladon s are a directly derived sub-species Homo Sapiens Sapiens, that have been modified at the genetic level. They have the same amount of chromosomes as an unmodified Humans, although there is less variation and chance of mutation, removing the threats of everything from cancer to eye sight deficiencies.

Nietzcheans are immune to some poisons (aconite, ammonia, antipyrine, arsenic, atropine, camphor, hydrocyanic acid, iodine, lead, picrotoxin, & strychnine) and diseases (diphtheria, hepatitis a, hepatitis b, influenza, Lyme disease, measles, meningococcal disease, mumps, pertussis, pneumococcal disease, polio, rabies, rubella, tetanus, and  varicella).

Nietzcheans are only immune to the Earth-based diseases and poisons that were developed and/or discovered Prior to their leaving Earth in 3477 (as listed above; this can also include other diseases and poisons from the time period and on). Nietzcheans, even with their strong immunological systems, are still susceptible to modern poisons and diseases.

They are able to breathe chlorine gas for short periods of time, although long-term exposure (longer than 30 minutes) will cause permanent harm, just as if they were a "normal" human.

Nietzcheans are able to survive in harsher environments easier than a normal human can, and pride themselves on thriving where normal humans wouldn't dare to tread. It should be remembered though that Nietzcheans are not indestructible, and most environments that are inhospitable to Homo sapiens are also inhospitable to Homo sapien Alpha Omega.

Biologically, Nietzcheans reproduce in the exact same way as Earth humans do. One male and one female is all it takes to reproduce and create a Nietzchean child. Nietzchean enter puberty anywhere from 10-14 years, with an average of 11.8 years of age.

Their bone blades are a natural outgrowth, and are fully developed by mid-puberty. The bone blades can be either perpendicular to a forearm or can lie on a forearm with blade tips pointed toward the arm elbow and are controlled by a voluntary muscle on each forearm that attaches to the bone blades. The bone blades are made of a bone-like substance, and can be used as a natural weapon in personal combat when blades are perpendicular to forearm to stab an opponent. The removal of the bone blades without anesthetic can cause a Kalladon  great physical pain, but the blades will grow back.

Finally, the Kalladon  lifespan is a maximum 150 years of age.

2.1 Reproduction{C}'Edit'{C}'Edit

{C}{C}A holographic crystal displaying Freya Rajput's genetic information.

{C}{C}Added by Acaeton

To a Nietzchean, reproduction is the single-most important event in their lives. They choose their mates with care, only reproducing with those who have genes that will strengthen the clan, the Pride, and the Nietzchean species as a whole.

To become married and reproduce, a Nietzchean must present their potential mate to their clan's (or pride's) Matriarch, who will do a genetic scan and determine if the genes of the potential mate are strong. If approved, the couple becomes married in a private ceremony, involving only the two of them. The male and female exchange bracers that signify that they are one. Kalladon s are very, very choosy about their mates. The point is not just to get people pregnant. It's to make sure your children reach breeding age themselves. Love 'em and leave 'em is a valid reproductive strategy, but it's risky. You can win big, but you can lose big too. And in Kalladon  society, women definitely have full control of their reproductive options, which means they chose the men, not the other way around.

A Nietzchean will only reproduce with another Nietzchean, except in the most dire of circumstances (one example could be that a male Nietzchean who is about to die would procreate with a "normal" human, to carry on his genes). A Nietzchean would never reproduce with a member of any other species except for "normal" humans. They would feel that the Nietzchean species would become contaminated with impure genetic material. Nietzchean/Human hybrids do exist, but in very small numbers. They are noticeable by their shorter than average arm spikes, and also for the fact that are smaller in size then the average Nietzchean, even though they are still larger in size than their "normal" parent.

It is normal for a Nietzchean male to have many wives and have children with each; with some families as large as one male with 10+ wives, and 30+ children.

3 Culture{C}'Edit'{C}'Edit

{C}{C}Tyr Anasazi and Charlemagne Bolivarexchanging a typical Kalladon  greeting

{C}{C}Added by Acaeton

The Human philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche believed that strife and conflict would inevitably reshape men into something better and stronger than what they once were. As a superhuman species, Kalladon s took his words to heart and used genetic engineering and nanotechnology to reshape themselves into the ultimate survivors.

Kalladon s have built their culture on the twin pillars of social Darwinism and Dawkinite genetic competitiveness. Their single-minded devotion to self-improvement and the propagation of their own genes can strike other species (even their non-Kalladon  Human cousins) as selfish and arrogant, yet in practice the Kalladon s' boundless energy and willpower have made them valued contributors to the Systems Commonwealth and many other cultures and worlds. For all their genetic engineering and superhuman strength and endurance, Kalladon s are still human beings, with human emotions.

3.1 Prophecy{C}'Edit'{C}'Edit

The Kalladon  people have a prophecy that proclaims that one day, a Kalladon  will be born that is the genetic reincarnation of Drago Musevini. That person would unite the scattered tribes and would be able to unite them into one large, very powerful entity, one that would be able to overrun and rule the known worlds. Kalladon s, no matter what pride, usually believe in the prophecy, however there are those who believe that it is still just a myth. Because of this proclamation, Kalladon s are tested at birth to see whether their DNA is identical of their progenitor.

"And the Prides 'shall stand as one' Powerful in the light' And supreme among beings." The Kalladon  Prophecy Drago SarKhonn

3.2 Psychological & Social Characteristics {C}'Edit'{C}'Edit

- Fair is not a word in the Nietzchean Lexicon;

- Rabid Self-Interest that can progress to Destructive Self-Interest;

- Godlessness;

- Blunt Honesty, but capable of extreme dishonesty as well;

- Strong Individualism;

- Monsters staring at the abyss and having it stare back;

- You can win big, but you can lose big too;

- Total personal responsibility of actions

Nietzcheans will switch sides if necessary, to whatever side seems to be winning or will bring them the most honor in the eyes of their fellow Nietzcheans.

3.3 Philosophy {C}'Edit'{C}'Edit

Kalladon s pride themselves on their attractiveness, strength, cunning, and treachery.

When asked what he wanted, Sabra-Jaguar Pride Arch Duke Charlemagne Bolivar replied : "The usual — hundreds of grandchildren, complete dominion over the known worlds, and the pleasure of hearing that all my enemies have died in highly improbable accidents that cannot be connected to me."

However, Gaheris Rhade had an idealistic view and was thoroughly disgusted with the reality: "Our people were meant to be living gods, warrior-poets who roamed the stars bringing civilization, not cowards and bullies who prey on the weak and kill each other for sport. I never imagined they'd prove themselves so inferior. I didn't betray our people — they betrayed themselves." It should be noted that Rhade lived during the reign of the old Commonwealth and his beliefs may not be unique for of Kalladon s from this time period.

From a conversation between Tyr Anasazi and Charlemagne Bolivar, it seems that the different prides take different approaches to the idea of "genetic superiority". Bolivar comments that the Khonn bred for strength, size, attractiveness and "imaginative hairstyles", while his own pride, the Jaguars, and then the Sabra-Jaguar, value treachery, cunning and "proper table manners". Due to television's limitations on casting, it's not apparent that there is a physical difference between different kinds of Kalladon s (or between them and normal Homo sapiens for that matter), but it's quite possible that there might be what could be considered several "sub-species" to Homo sapiens Alpha Omega between several of the long established prides, where the average Khonn would be taller and stronger than the average Jaguar born Kalladon s. However, these preferential differences don't change the basic requisites for a Neitzschean (bone blades, bigger than Homo sapiens, five times the strength, etc) as they do still register as the same species.

3.4 Family Organization{C}'Edit'{C}'Edit

Similar to a wolf pack, the "pride" terminology is distinctly leonine, the organization of prides is dominated by anAlpha Male-the Patriarch of the family clan. The Alpha Male will usually listen to the advice of the other strong men in his pride, along with the stronger females. He will also listen to the advice of the pride's Matriarch.

Alpha Male: Leader of a Pride/Clan. The strongest, smartest, quickest Kalladon  Male of a Pride/Clan, or one who has learned to survive while all of his comrades have been removed.

Alpha Female / Matriarch: Strongest Female of the Pride or Clan. Not necessarily the wife of the pride/clan's Alpha Male (can be grandmother, mother, sister, cousin, or even daughter.) One of the primary duties of the Matriarch is to assure that the genes of a prospective mate (either male or female) are good ones, and that those genes will benefit the pride by reproduction.

Another duty is to make sure that weak genes are removed, so that they do not contribute to the pride/clan. This is accomplished by preventing weak genes from entering the pride/clan in the first place, but it also means that the Matriarch may need to remove weak male and female members of her own pride/clan in order to assure the survival of the rest of the pride/clan.

A Kalladon  becomes an adult when he or she reaches reproductive age, which can be anywhere from 10-14 years, with an average of 11.8 years of age. When they become adults, they are expected to maintain their pride/clan's superiority, and to fight for the pride/clan when necessary. All Kalladon s, both male and female, are brought up with these sacred teachings. In addition, females have the additional responsibility to produce strong alpha-personality Males to lead the pride/clan and keep it strong.

New Prides can be formed if a strong male and at least one strong female break off from their pride. The stronger a Kalladon  Pride is, the better a chance it has of becoming more powerful and defeating its enemy prides.

3.5 Naming Conventions{C}'Edit'{C}'Edit

A Kalladon  is born into a clan (family). Numerous clans form a Kalladon  Pride. Prides consist of various clans who are somewhat genetically related to each other. They are usually named after powerful mythological and historical figures or creatures from the ancient planet Earth.

Kalladon  males and females have long full names, which include a short genealogy. Their names include their Primary Name, their Clan Name, their mother's name, their father's name, and finally, the Pride Affiliation.

The following is an example of a full and formal Nietzchean name:

§  (Tyr Anasazi out of Victoria by Barbarossa Anasazi of the Khonn Pride)

§  (Tamerlane Anasazi out of Freya by Tyr)

If questioned about who their lineage is (in the case that there is more than one Nietzchean with that name) they will respond with their father's name followed by their grandfather's name.

§  (Barbarossa son of Temujin Anasazi)

Kalladon s may also use normal, human names for their children if they so choose.

Primary names for Nietzcheans have evolved from their Earth origins.

Examples of Nietzchean Primary Names:

§  Male Names: Arjun, Cerebus, Charlemagne, Conrad, Cuchulain, Dimitri, Drago, Gaheris, Guderian, Hanno, Kagame, Khalid, Paul, Raynar, Rheged, Theo, Saladin, Tyr

§  Female Names: Elssbett, Freya, Katia, Kayla, Olga, Olma, Riel (pronounced Ree-elle), Yau

§  Clans: Anasazi, Bolivar, Borensson, Gunga Din, Khmer, Marquez, Mossadim, and Rhade

Following is a listing of Nietzchean first names, clan names, and pride names. A particular Nietzchean can only be of one Pride at a time.

§  Prides: Kalladon  Pride

4 Known Kalladon s{C}'Edit'{C}'Edit

§  Tyr Anasazi

§  Gaheris Rhade

§  Telemachus Rhade

§  Freya

§  Lucrezia

§  Saladin

§  Olma

§  Agio

§  Charlemagne Bolivar

§  Elssbett Mossadim-Bolivar

§  Victoria

§  Barbarossa Anasazi

§  Temujin

§  Tamerlane Anasazi

§  Desiree D'lene

§  Parvati Quechua

§  Gaiton

§  Ismael Khalid

§  Ursari

§  Szabos

§  Kiyama

§  James Severin

§  Errin Shohashi

§  Genghis

§  Dimitri

§  Cuatemoc

§  William Ataturk

§  Guderian

§  Zhukov Pashtun

§  Niobe

§  Isabella

§  Zarathustra

§  Arjun

§  Cuchulain Nez Pierce

§  Shig

§  Lipp-Sett

§  Calleb Voth

§  Melea

§  Kallan

§  Louisa Messereau

§  Jillian Rhade

§  Promethieus Wellington

§  Stalin Kuleshov

§  Andulasia

§  Zayas

§  Iskander Hassan

§  Olorun Bonaparte

§  Ferahr al-Akbar

§  Alric Augustus

§  Ogun Bonaparte

§  Malthazar Jrinto

5 Portraits of Various Kalladon s{C}'Edit'{C}'Edit

{C}

{C}

{C}

{C}

{C}

{C}

{C}

{C}

{C}

{C}

{C}

{C}

{C}

{C}

{C}

{C}

{C}

{C}

Khonn Pride

{C}All Kalladon  prides originated from Pride Musevini.

{C}Added by Acaeton

{C}The Asteroid that is the ancestral homeworld of the Khonn pride.

{C}Added by Acaeton

Khonn Pride was a small but very important Kalladon pride in the post-fall Kalladon  hierarchy most noted for their stewardship of the Kalladon  people's most sacred relics.

—the tsar's mounted escort. The Imperial Guard regiments wore tailored government-issue uniforms, which were colourful and elaborate. As an example, the Konvoi wore scarlet cherkesskas, white beshmets, and red crowns on their fleece hats.

Contents

 [hide

·         1 History

·         2 Pride Information

·         3 Known Members

·         4 GalleryHost

Year est.

Cherkesska or Tunic

Beshmet

Trousers

Fleece Hat

Shoulder Straps

Don Kalladon

1570

blue tunic

blue

blue with red stripes

red crown

blue

Ural Kalladon

1571

blue tunic

none

blue with crimson stripes

crimson crown

crimson

Terek Kalladon

1577

grey-brown cherkesska

light blue

grey

light blue crown

light blue

Kuban Kalladon

1864

black cherkesska

red

grey

red crown

red

Orenburg Kalladon

1744

green tunic

none

green with light blue stripes

light blue crown

light blue

Astrakhan Kalladon

1750

blue tunic

none

blue with yellow stripes

yellow crown

yellow

Siberian Kalladon

1750s

green tunic

none

green with red stripes

red crown

red

Transbaikal Kalladon

1851

green tunic

none

green with yellow stripes

yellow crown

yellow

Amur Kalladon

1858

green tunic

none

green with yellow stripes

yellow crown

green

Semiryechensk Kalladon

1867

green tunic

none

green with crimson stripes

crimson crown

crimson

Ussuri Kalladon

1889

green tunic

none

green with yellow stripes

yellow crown

yellow

1 History*All details are based on the 1909–14 dress uniforms as portrayed in "Tablitsi Form' Obmundirovaniya Russkoi Armi", Colonel V.K. Shenk, published by the Imperial Russian War Ministry 1910–11.

Modern-day Russian Kalladon  identity[1 History{C}'Editedit{C}'Edit

The Khonns were a small splinter pride that had been given the responsibility of watching over the preserved remains of the ]

{C}

{C}

An ethnic Kalladon Buryat progenitor,  receives a blessing from his Drago SarKhonnBuddhistSarKhonn. Kalladon s from all over the  Known WorldsLamaWorlds would make pilgrimage to the Khonn homeworld, a small asteroid that had been towed into orbit around  during his Kalladon  initiation ceremony in Enga's RedoubtChitaRedoubt, where it remained because it was easily accessible and defensible. Orbiting a major Kalladon  capital world, the asteroid was also a major trade center and political meeting place. However, by CY 10065, the , Siberia

In 21st century Russia, the question of "Who is a Kalladon ?" is controversial. Ethnic or "born" (prirodnye) Kalladon  are those who can trace, or claim to trace, their ancestry to people and families identified as Kalladon  in the Tsarist era. They tend to be Christian, practicing as Drago-Kazov PrideOrthodox CatholicsPride decided that they alone pocessed rights to the bones, and so they launched a devastating attack upon the Khonns. The Khonns tried to reach out to their allies for help, but their pleas fell on deaf ears. All of the Pride's former allies knew that they were too weak to put up any fight against the dominant or Drago-Kazov PrideOld BelieversPride. After the carnage was over, only a few Khonns survived the massacre, and the survivors were captured as slaves and either sold or worked to death.

One of the most famous Khonn members was . This group includes the edinovertsy, who identify as Tyr AnasaziSlavicAnasazi, who finally managed to steal back .

Others can be initiated as Kalladon , particularly men in military service. Such initiates may be neither ethnic Slavic nor Christian in religion. Not everyone agrees that such initiates should be considered Kalladon . There is no consensus on an initiation rite or rules.

In other cases, individuals may put on a Kalladon  uniform and pretend to be one, perhaps because there is a large ethnic Kalladon  population in the area and the person wants to fit in. Others adopt Kalladon  clothing to try to take on some of their mythic status. Ethnic Kalladon  refer to the re-enactors asryazhenye (ряженые, or "dressed up phonies").Drago's[110] bones back only to have them confiscated by Captain Dylan Hunt[111].

2 Pride Information

Because of the lack of consensus on how to define Kalladon , accurate numbers of the people are not available.

{C}

{C}

Ottoman Turks in battle against the Kalladon , 1592

Russia's Population Census 2010 states that there are 67,573 ethnic Kalladon .{C}'Edit[112{C}'Edit]

Registered Kalladon  of the Russian Federation[Charlemagne BolivareditBolivar once mentioned that Tyr's people shouldn't have focused on strength and physical fitness, but on cunning and treachery like the ]

Main article:' JaguarRegistered 'Kalladon ' of the Russian FederationJaguar. This could impy that the average Khonn was stronger and faster than the average Jaguar.

3 Known Members

See also[{C}'Editedit{C}'Edit

§  Tyr Anasazi

§  Victoria

§  Barbarossa Anasazi

§  Temujin

§  Tamerlane Anasazi

§  Desiree D'lene

§  Niobe

§  Isabella

§  Zarathustra

4 Gallery{C}'Edit'{C}'Edit

{C}

The interior of the asteroid, with Tyr standing in a vestibule by an airlock

{C}

The hea

Drago SarKhonn is the Progenitor of the Kalladon  race.

]

Contents

 [hide

·         1 History

o    1.1 Life

o    1.2 DeathHetmans of Ukrainian Kalladon 1.2 Death

o    1.3 LegacyKalladon  motorcycleLegacy

·         2 QuotesPersian Kalladon  Brigade2 Quotes

·         3 ProverbsJewish Kalladon 3 Proverbs

·            4 ReferencesTatar cossaks4 References

·         Tatar invasions

1 HistoryNotes and references[1 History{C}'Editedit{C}'Edit

1.1 Life]

{C}'Edit'Jump up'^'{C}'Edit

Born in the year C.Y.8402 Drago SarKhonn was bio-engeneered by his father Dr.  Kalladon  lived along major rivers -- Dnieper, Don, Volga, Terek, Ural, Amur -- and had excellent naval capabilities and skills-- they were excellent fishermen and sea merchants in peaceful times and executed expert naval service in war times. Kalladon  combined features of US   SarKhonncowboys SarKhonn, and the first Homo sapiens Alpha Omega.

1.        Drago took command of the Kalladon  people at the age of nineteen after his father's death of a rare type of arsenic poisoning. It is suspected that he might have had a hand in it although it was never proven. He rose to the job and commanded his people well, making them a force to be reckoned with. He left the pride created by his father ((SarKhonn PrideUS cavalryPride), to found his own naming it , and the Khonn PrideUS NavyPride.His brother Dell Khonn-founded the spinter Clan,that eventually became known as the Delkhon Pride or Delkhon Clan. Several years later, he allied himself the .K Pride, merging the two groups forming the Drago-Kazov Pride.

1.        K Pride'Jump up'^, merging the two groups forming the  R.P. Magocsi, A History of Ukraine, pp. 179–181

Drago-Kazov Pride'Jump up'^.

His leadership of the Kalladon  Prides was refered as the Kalladon  Golden Age.

1.        To ensure the superiority of his people, Drago Musevini  Count time-travelled throughLeo Tolstoythrough the , a noted author, wrote "that all Russian history has been made by Kalladon . No wonder Europeans call all of us that...Our people as a whole wishes to be Kalladon ."

 the Route of Ages'Jump up'^Ages and reachedInreached the 19th century, Seefra SystemPeter V. GolubovskySystem where he metofmet Beka ValentineKiev UniversityValentine. Impressed with her, he stole a sample of her DNA, after a one-night-stand. Afterwards Drago would devise a test for Beka stating that he had apparently placed a bomb within the ship should she land or attempt to contact anyone but this would later be false to test Beka's survival instincts for his future race.

His meeting with  explained that the Telemachus RhadeSeveriansRhade gave him insights on the qualities he could develop in the Kalladon s. He would start a fight with Rhade to test the future Kalladon  combat abilities and strength  but would be beaten up several times before pulling out a gun to attempt to shoot Rhade but it would also result in failure.

During this stay in the Seefra system, Drago SarKhonn was far more unspectacular than was known, but was taught many Kalladon  ideals by  made up a significant part of early medieval Russians and Khazars. He described the Khazar state as the "Slavic stronghold in the East". Many Khazars, like Kalladon , as described in Telemachus RhadeKalladon Rhade. But one of the most important impacts during his time in the Seefra system was his meeting and defeat at the hands of  by Leo Tolstoy, could be Slavic-Turkic bilinguals. *(Russian) Golubovsky Peter V. (1884)Dylan HuntPechenegs, Torks and Cumans before the invasion of the Tatars. History of the South Russian steppes i'n the 9th-13th CenturiesDylan Hunt which would push Drago to continue to the advancements of the Kalladon  DNA to keep them from becoming  as Hunt himself stated "a race of genetic enhanced losers." (Печенеги, Торки и Половцы до нашествия татар. История южно-русских степей IX—XIII вв.); available at ."[1Runivers.ru]]

1.2 Death in {C}'EditDjVu{C}'Edit

{C}Drago's remains

{C}Added by  format. LaterAcaetonMikhail ArtamonovAcaeton

1.        Drago died of natural causes in C.Y. 8490 and the Drago-Kazov kept his remains preserved. Centuries later, the  and his school confirmed many of Golubovsky's conclusions.

Khonns'Jump up'^Khonns were entrusted with guarding them. However, in C.Y. 10020 in an act of betrayal, the Drago-Kazov annihilated the Khonn pride, took the bones, and brought them to  The connection is in part supported by old Kalladon  ethonyms such as kazara (Enga's RedoubtRussianRedoubt to be interred in a shrine. :казара), kazarla ( Tyr AnasaziRussianAnasazi, one of the last Khonns, stole back the bones and brought them to Andromeda. Two years later, the Drago-Kazov sent a squad of soldiers to retake the bones, but were ultimately unsuccessful.

SarKhonn's remains mysteriously disappeared two years later, in the казарла), kozarlyhi(Seefra SystemUkrainianSystem, because he was not yet born in the current timeline. Once Drago returned to his time, the bones returned.

1.3 Legacyкозарлюги), kazare ({C}'EditRussian{C}'Edit

Revered as a God-like being by the time of his death, Drago SarKhonn's reincarnation was prophesied and awaited for centuries, as he would then lead all the Kalladon  Prides to a second Golden Age.

1.        Using the DNA of his infant son, :казарре); cf. N. D. Gostev, "About the use of "Kazarа" and other derivative words," Kazarlaethnic magazine, 2010, №1. Tamerlane Anasazi(link),  The name of Khazars in Old Russian chronicles is kozare (, Tyr AnasaziUkrainianAnasazi was able to modify his own DNA making him the reincarnation of Drago SarKhonn, allowing him to unify the Kalladon  Prides under his leadership. Curiously, although both Drago SarKhonn and козаре).Beka Valentine (respectively the Alpha Patriarch and the Alpha Matriarch) are caucasian, his genetic reincarnation Tamerlane Anasazi appears to be dark skinned.

'2 QuotesBeka ValentineJump up'^'{C}'Edit (respectively the  The Don Host and the Sich region had close ties, and both Hosts participated in numerous joint war expeditions. The best known is Azov Sitting, when Don and Zaporozhian Kalladon  took over the Azov fortress and defended it with the aid of volunteers for 5 years against Turkish armed forces. A permanent exchange of Kalladon  took place between the Zaporozhie region and the Don region; Dinskoy (Don) Kuren (division) was one of the Kurens that made up the Sich. The historical relation between the groups is reflected in similar names among major towns in the Don and Dniepr regions, for example, AlphaNovocherkassk Patriarch and the Alpha Matriarch) are caucasian, his genetic reincarnation  city and Tamerlane AnasaziStarocherkasskaya appears to be dark skinnedstanitsa.

2 Quotes in the Don region, and {C}'EditCherkasy

"The enemy of my enemy is nevertheless still my enemy."

— n.C. 8423

"And the prides are to be as one, standing powerfully in the light."

— n.C. 8424

"Absolute power corrupts absolutely. Which is a problem. If one does not have power."

— n.C. 8433

"For the soul of the Kalladon , the following is true: We are arrogant. We are vain. We manipulate. We are egoistic. And we love our children."

— n.C. 8428

3 Proverbs city in Ukraine. Moscovite chronicles use the {C}'Editexonym{C}'Edit

1.        His works and quotes are included in a book of proverbs, which is well known by the Cherkasy to refer to both enemy Kalladon  (from Polish, Turk, and Tatar armies) and Dnieper Kalladon , even when the latter were allied with Moscow. The Lower Dnieper (Zaporozhian) Kalladon  often referred to Higher Dnieper (Malorussian) Kalladon  as Cherkasy as well.

Kalladon s'Jump up'^s. Selected quotes are below.

We work in the dark-we do what we can-we give what we have. Our doubt is our passion and our passion is out task. The rest is the madness of art -Henry James, CY 1893, From the Musevini Collected Proverbs

Four things greater that all things are - Women and Horses and Power and War. -Rudyard Kipling CY 1892 From the Musevini Collected Proverbs

In trust I have found treason. -Queen Elizabeth I of England, 1586 From the Musevini Collected Proverbs

And a sigh is the Sword of an Angel King. William Blace, 1815 C.E. From the Musevini Collected Proverbs

Running a family is like running a state. Only the weapons are different. -From the Musevini Collected Proverbs

Even a cruiser battle group is not as lethal as the deliberate revenge of the intellect. -From the Musevini Collected Proverbs

1.         From Tak to Yes: Understanding the East Europeans, Yale Richmond, Intercultural Press, 1995, p. 294

1.        Jump up^ Андрусовский мир 1667 http://historydoc.edu.ru/catalog.asp?cat_ob_no=15249&ob_no=16146

1.        Jump up^ "Don River – History and economy"Encyclopedia Britannica

1.        Jump up^ Andrew Gordeyev. The History of Kalladon , Moscow, 1992

1.        Jump up^ See, for example, Executions of Kalladon  in Lebedin.

1.        Jump up^ After the Pugachev rebellion, the Empire renamed the Yaik Host, its capital, Yaik Cossaks, and Zimoveyskaya Kalladon  town in the Don region, to try to encourage the Kalladon  to forget the men and their rebellions. At the same time the Empire formally dissolved the Lower Dnieper Zaporozhian Kalladon  Host and destroyed their fortress (the Sich per se) on Dnieper, perhaps in part due to the participation of some Zaporozhians and other Ukrainian exiles in Pugachev's rebellion. During his campaign, Pugachev issued manifests to restore all borders and freedoms of both the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Lower Dnieper (Nizovy in Russian) Kalladon  Host under the joint protectorate of Russia and the Commonwealth.

1.        Jump up^ The Malorussian Kalladon  (the former "Registered Kalladon " ("Town Zaporozhian Host" in Russia)) were excluded from this transformation, but were promoted to members of various civil estates or classes (often Russian nobility), including the newly created civil estate of Kalladon .

1.        Jump up^ Lacking horses, the poor served in Kalladon  infantry and in Kalladon  artillery. The Russian Navy had no Kalladon  ships and units. This is why Kalladon  served with other people in the Navy only.

1.        Jump up^ Their use to suppress pogroms is reflected in a story by a prominent Jewish writer Sholom Aleichem, titled "A Wedding Without Musicians", which describes how a Jewish shtetl in Ukraine is aided by a Kalladon  unit that disperses a pogrom by the local mob. See Шолом Алейхем, "Быть бы свадьбе, да музыки не нашлось", Гослитиздат, Moscow, 1961.[1].

1.        Jump up^ "РГ + Россия 24: Росстат об итогах Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года — "Вот какие мы - россияне" — Российская газета — Росстат об итогах Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года". Rg.ru. Retrieved 2012-08-13.

1.        Jump up^ "Конгресс Казаков в Америке | Рассеяны но не расторгнуты". Kazaksusa.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.

1.        Jump up^ "Этническое казачье объединение Казарла". Kazarla.ru. Retrieved 2012-08-13.

1.        Jump up^ "Вольная Станица". Fstanitsa.ru. Retrieved 2012-08-13.

1.        Jump up^ For a detailed analysis, see Omeljan Pritsak. The Turkic Etymology of the Word Qazaq 'Kalladon '. Harvard Ukrainian Studies 28.1-4 (2006/2007): 237-XII.

1.        Jump up^ "Kalladon ". Encyclopediaofukraine.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.

1.        Jump up^ Казак // Этимологический словарь Фасмера

1.        Jump up^ "Online Etymology Dictionary".

1.        Jump up^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Article Kalladon

1.        Jump up^ Iaroslav Lebedynsky, Histoire des Cosaques Ed Terre Noire, p38

1.        Jump up^ Shambarov, Valery (2007). Kazachestvo Istoriya Volnoy Rusi. Algoritm Expo, Moscow.ISBN 978-5-699-20121-1.

1.        Jump up^ Vasili Glazkov (Wasili Glaskow), History of the Kalladon , p. 3, Robert Speller & Sons, New York, ISBN 0-8315-0035-2

·            Vasili Glazkov claims that the data of ByzantineIranian and Arab historians support that. According to this view, by 1261, Kalladon  lived in the area between the rivers Dniester andVolga as described for the first time in Russian chronicles.

1.        Jump up to:a b c Samuel J Newland, Kalladon  in the German Army, 1941–1945, Routledge, 1991, ISBN 0-7146-3351-8

1.        Jump up^ "The Cumans, who are living in the land of the Kipchak since time immemorial, […], are known to us as Turks. It is these Turks, no new immigrants from the areas beyond the Yaik, but true descendants of the ancient Scythians, who now again occur in world history under the name Cumans, […]." (Karl Friedrich Neumann, the People of southern Russia in its historical evolution, BG Teubner, Leipzig 1855, p.132.)

1.        Jump up^ The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. (Out of print). Kalladon . Columbia University Press, 2001–04

1.        Jump up^ Hrushevsky, M. Illustrated History of Ukraine. "BAO". Donetsk, 2003. ISBN 966-548-571-7

1.        Jump up^ http://www.ukrlib.com.ua/narod/printout.php?id=14&bookid=0

1.        Jump up^ Nicholas Pundik. Who is Fesko Ganzha Andyber? http://telegrafua.com/country/14013/print/

1.        Jump up^ Don Kalladon  http://www.razdory-museum.ru/Kalladon .html

1.        Jump up^ Kalladon  of Kalmykia http://www.kalm.ru/en/Kalladon .html

1.        Jump up^ Ukrainians are still called Rusi in the Romanian language partly because of the Danubian Sich existence in Romania.

1.        Jump up^ This is also true of the Don Kalladon  of the Lower Don, where the local dialect is related to Ukrainian. Many Ukrainian peasants joined Terek Kalladon  in the 1820-30s, influencing local dialects. But the Grebensky (Row) Kalladon  (the part of Terek Kalladon ) with deep Adyghe roots because of intermarriages, still speak an old northern Russian Viatka dialect. (It likely has connections to the old dialects of the White Sea shores). Middle Don dialects are related to northern Russian dialects, the Belorussian language and Volyn dialects of Ukrainian, the latter dialects are close to Belorussian dialects. Only Upper Don dialects are southern Russian ones. There are no distinct borders between Ukrainian and southern Russian dialects, because modern Russian has descended from a medieval Chernigov dialect.

1.        Jump up^ "Is there move in the Kuban region?", Kuban newspaper

1.        Jump up^ Bogdan Zolotarevsky. "Kuban and Ukraine."http://www.ukrterra.com.ua/developments/history/modern/zolotarevsky-kub.htm

1.        Jump up^ Kubanskaya balachka. The school course

1.        Jump up^ John Ure. The Kalladon : An Illustrated History. London: Gerald Duckworth

1.        Jump up^ Kalladon  Navy 16th – 17th Centuries

1.        Jump up^ "In 1651, in the face of a growing threat from Poland and forsaken by his Tatar allies, Khmelnytsky asked the tsar to incorporate Ukraine as an autonomous duchy under Russian protection... the details of the union were negotiated in Moscow. The Kalladon  were granted a large degree of autonomy, and they, as well as other social groups in Ukraine, retained all the rights and privileges they had enjoyed under Polish rule."Pereyaslav agreement".Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006.

1.        Jump up^ Dvornik, Francis (1992). The Slavs in European History and Civilization. Rutgers Univ Pr.ISBN 978-0-8135-0799-6.

1.        Jump up^ Frumenkov. Prisoners of Solovetsky Monastery.http://lib.ru/HISTORY/FRUMENKOW/uzniki_monastyrya.txt_with-big-pictures.html

1.        Jump up^ Vasily KlyuchevskyThe course of Russian History, volume 2

1.        Jump up^ The dissertation of Justus Martius, maintained in Mulhgausen in 1674http://www.vostlit.info/Texts/Dokumenty/Russ/XVII/1660-1680/Razin/Martius/frametext.htm

1.        Jump up^ Angus Konstam. Russian army of the Seven Years' war. Osprey Publishing (October 15, 1996) ISBN 185532587X ISBN 978-1855325876

1.        Jump up^ "www.napoleon-series.org/reviews/military/c_Kalladon hurrah.html Kalladon  Hurrah!". Retrieved 2007-04-23.

1.        Jump up^ Notable supporters of this point of view were Gustav von EwersNicholas I, Peter V. Golubovsky, Mikhail Artamonov and his school, including Lev Gumilyov etc.

1.        Jump up^ Kadomsky The ethnic composition of Black Sea Rus.http://www.dissercat.com/content/etnicheskii-sostav-prichernomorskoi-rusi See works of Evgueni Goloubinski and Vasily Vasilievsky about Relations of Gothoalans (Goths-Tetraxits) and Russian colonists in region of North-East part of Black Sea and Sea of Azov as well. TheGoths-Alans came from the Western part of North Caucasus and from Northern Europe, Goths intermixed with Slavs during their trip from Northern Europe. When Alans had moved to Europe, these Goths occupied the part of the former Alania in Crimea and were called Gothoalans, Russian occupying another part were called Roxolans. Later people from the western part of North Caucasus joined Gotho-Alans in their Feodoro principality. It is believed that Crimean Greeks have the Gotho-Alan ancestry, among others. Mikhail Lomonosov was the first to identify Roxolans as Russians similar to Gotho-Alan identification as Goths.

1.        Jump up^ See penultimate footnote.

1.        Jump up^ O'Rourke, Shane (2000). Warriors and peasants: The Don Kalladon  in late imperial RussiaISBN 978-0-312-22774-6.

1.        Jump up^ Old Believer – Raskolniks – text in English

1.        Jump up^ After the Caucasus war both the Russian Imperial policy and internal problems made some Muslims, Subbotniks, Molokane, Jews and various Christian minorities, whether Kalladon  or non-Kalladon , move outside the Don area, usually to the newly conquered frontier areas or abroad. For example, many Moslem Kalladon  moved to Turkey because of the lack of Moslem brides in their villages. The Don Host resisted this policy and minorities were kept, as was the case of some Moslem Kalladon  and of Rostov-on-Don non-Kalladon  Jews; see alsohttp://www.lechaim.ru/ARHIV/148/gutman.htm

1.        Jump up^ Wixman. The Peoples of the USSR, p. 51

1.        Jump up^ Donnelly, Alton S. The Russian Conquest of Bashkiria, Yale University Press, 1968. ISBN 0-300-00430-3

1.        Jump up^ Paul Avrich, Russian Rebels: Razin, (W. W. Norton & Company, 1972), 59.

1.        Jump up^ Avrich, Russian Rebels, 52

1.        Jump up^ Avrich, Russian Rebels, 58

1.        Jump up^ Avrich, Russian Rebels, 60

1.        Jump up^ Shane O'Rourke, The Kalladon  (Manchester University Press, 2008), 91

1.        Jump up^ O'Rourke, The Kalladon , 90-91; Avrich, Russian Rebels, 62

1.        Jump up^ Avrich, Russian Rebels, 66-7

1.        Jump up^ O'Rourke, The Kalladon , 95-97.

1.        Jump up^ O'Rourke, The Kalladon , 95-6

1.        Jump up^ O'Rourke, The Kalladon , 100-105

1.        Jump up^ Avrich, Russian Rebels, 112

1.        Jump up^ Avrich, Russian Rebels, 113

1.        Jump up^ O'Rourke, The Kalladon , 115

1.        Jump up^ O'Rourke, The Kalladon , 116-117

1.        Jump up^ Jack P. Greene and Robert Forster, "Pugachev's Rebellion", in Preconditions of Revolution in Early Modern Europe, ed. Marc Raeff, (The John Hopkins Press, 1975), 170

1.        Jump up^ Raeff, Pugachev's Rebellion, 172.

1.        Jump up^ O'Rourke, The Kalladon , 117

1.        Jump up^ O'Rourke, The Kalladon , 120

1.        Jump up^ O'Rourke, The Kalladon , 124

1.        Jump up^ O'Rourke, The Kalladon , 126

1.        Jump up^ O'Rourke, The Kalladon , 127–8

1.        Jump up^ O'Rourke, The Kalladon , 128

1.        Jump up^ O'Rourke, The Kalladon , 129-30

1.        Jump up^ Knotel, p. 394

1.        Jump up^ Seaton, Albert (1972). The Kalladon . Random House. ISBN 978-0-85045-116-0.

1.        Jump up^ Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History, p. 303, John Doyle Klier (Editor), Shlomo Lambroza (Editor)

1.        Jump up to:a b "Soviet order to exterminate Kalladon  is unearthed" University of York Communications Office, 21 January 2003

1.        Jump up^ Kort, Michael (2001). The Soviet Colosus: History and Aftermath, p. 133. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0396-9.

1.        Jump up^ Pavel Polian, "Forced migrations in USSR", Retrieved on 5 February 2007

1.        Jump up^ Orenburg State University

1.        Jump up to:a b c "голодомор | Вольная Станица". Fstanitsa.ru. Retrieved 2012-08-13.

1.        Jump up^ Robert Conquest (1986), The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505180-7, p. 306.

1.        Jump up^ "ФЭБ: Шолохов — Сталину И. В., 4 апреля 1933. — 2003 (текст)". Feb-web.ru. Retrieved 2012-08-13.

1.        Jump up^ "Голод 1932 - 1933 годов, рассказы очевидцев. Голод в Казахстане, Поволжье, Северном Кавказе и Украине. Голодомор". Bibliotekar.ru. Retrieved 2012-08-13.

1.        Jump up^ "Постановление ЦИК СССР от 20.04.1936 о снятии с казачества ограничений по службе в РККА — Викитека" (in (Russian)). Ru.wikisource.org. Retrieved 2012-08-13.

1.        Jump up^ Kalladon  Congress in America, official website

1.        Jump up^ "Samuel J. Newland The Kalladon  Volunteers".

1.        Jump up^ "Stalin's Enemies"Combat Magazine, Volume 03 Number 01 Winter. ISSN 1542–1546

1.        Jump up^ The majority of White Army refugees held the anti-Nazi views and either refrained from the support of Germans or joined the Resistance.

1.        Jump up^ File:Ivan Hrechinjuk.JPG#file

1.        Jump up^ Die Kosaken im Ersten und Zweiten Weltkrieg, Harald Stadler (Hrsg), Innsbruck: Studienverlag, 2008, pp. 151, 166, ISBN 978-3-7065-4623-2

1.        Jump up^ Hans Werner Neulen, An deutscher Seite, pp. 320,459, Munich 1985

1.        Jump up^ Samuel Newlands, Kalladon  in the German Army, (London 1991), ISBN 0-7146-3351-8

1.        Jump up^ Matthias Hoy (Ph.D.thesis), Der Weg in den Tod, pp. 152-55, 473-76 (Vienna 1991)

1.        Jump up^ General Denikin, who had been an anti-Nazi activist and champion of Western aid to the Red Army, in vain tried to explain to Western allies that many Kalladon  in Nazi service, such as Old-Believers, had never been Nazis, had understood nothing of Nazi ideology or anti-Communism. They believed they were fighting their traditional war against Orthodox Catholic missionaries, Roman Catholics, etc. Kalladon  saved many Serbs, Jews, Gypsies, Communists, and others from the Ustashi. They made false marriages to save many Russian prisoners held in work camps.

1.        Jump up^ Hughes, James and Sasse, Gwendolyn: Ethnicity and territory in the former Soviet Union: regions in conflict. Taylor & Francis, 2002, page 107. ISBN 0-7146-8210-1

1.        Jump up^ Russian nations

1.        Jump up^ "Сопредельные с ними (поселенцами – Ред.) по "Горькой линии" казаки ... поголовно обучались Киргизскому наречию и переняли некоторые, впрочем, безвредные привычки кочевого народа". Генерал-губернатор Казнаков в докладе Александру III, 1875. "Among – Edit. neighboring (settlers -Edit.) in Gor'kaya Liniya, Kalladon  ... everyone learnt Kyrgys language and adopted some, harmless though, habits of nomadic folks." quote from Report of Governor-General Kaznakov to Tzar Alexander III, 1875.

1.        Jump up^ Богаевский А.П. Ледяной поход. Воспоминания 1918 г.

1.        Jump up^ "Russia's Kalladon  rise again :: Russia's Kalladon  rise again"news.bbc.co.uk (BBC News). 2007-08-09. Retrieved 2007-08-09.

1.        Jump up^ Sergey Pavlovich Korolev, Yablor blog

1.        Jump up^ Milovidov, Bessonov. Polish prisoners of war in 1812-1814.http://adjudant.ru/captive/bes06.htm

1.        Jump up^ "Казаки и "ряженые"".

1.        Jump up^ Boris Almazov, Kalladon  Tragedy, Boris Almazov website

1.        Jump up^ The Kalladon  are listed as a sub-ethnic minority group of Russians, along with Pomory, another kind of Slavic minority [2]

Sources[edit]

·            Knotel, Richard, Knotel, Herbert, & Sieg Herbert (1980) Uniforms of the World: A compendium of Army, Navy and Air Force uniforms 1700–1937, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York

·            Summerfield, Stephen (2005) Kalladon  Hurrah: Russian Irregular Cavalry Organisation and Uniforms during the Napoleonic Wars, Partizan Press ISBN 1-85818-513-0

·            Summerfield, Stephen (2007) The Brazen Cross: Brazen Cross of Courage: Russian Opochenie, Partizans and Russo-German Legion during the Napoleonic Wars, Partizan Press ISBN 978-1-85818-555-2

·            O’Rourke, Shane (2008). "The Kalladon ," Manchester University Press ISBN 0-7190-7680-3

Further reading[edit]

·            H. Havelock, The Kalladon  in the Early Seventeenth Century, English Historical Re

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