Maveric Universe Wiki


1,341pages on
this wiki
Add New Page
Talk0 Share


The TyRhainean Empire is totalitarian regime known as TyRhainean rule the area. They originally come a harsh planet, once visited frequently by the Atlanteans. Their sun was about to go Nova and were convinced, due their Great Respect for the Elder Races, moved off to Terra-Prime. The TyRhainean are super humans who possess greater prowess than average humans. men wore tight fighting garb. with TyRhainean Wolf hide capes and leather fighting vest, that holds many weapons and other useless devices that covered nearly their entire bodies, generally leaving only the face and hands exposed. The Many TyRhainean hair was pulled into a kind of topknot through an opening in the top of the headgear, though some don't wear it this way and leave it flowing about their head and neck areas. Male attire is very colorful, but there different blend of colors indication that color connoted status or tribe. More important TyRhainean added subdued ornamentation to their clothing; typically, this consisted of fringes or ruffs of fur. The highest-ranking TyRhainean First Guard -an Elite Fighting Service in service of a The TyRhainean High Council of Lords is known as the First Prime and bears a raised gold insignia, fitted upon a leather headband. Other high-ranking may bear similar silver marks. TyRhainean women wore long, flowing dresses and bound their hair. Very few ever make into the TyRhainean Warrior Elite Class, but fight in low level position under TyRhainean Military Clans.

Society and cultureEdit

Most of them join the TyRhainean Secret Service-their form of Surveillance of enemies or potential enemies of the Empire. describe the TyRhainean Military Clans as being a bloodthirsty race, but this is only a very basic description of a sworn enemy. While most of the TyRhainean Military Clans seen are certainly aggressive, and often employ violence as an expedient solution to a problem, they will not hesitate to use a non-violent method if it will achieve their goals. They are also shown to care deeply about their family and race. It should be noted that almost all of the TyRhainean Military Clans seen in the series are part of the TyRhainean Military Clans, and so are not necessarily representative of the race as a whole. The Atlanteans must have seen something in the rest of their culture worth saving, that either known by younger races or not evident in the TyRhainean as of yet in their cultures social evolution. TyRhainean, like the Jovians, are said to not kill each other, and view the way with which humans kill each other in wars and in crimes as horrific-unless provokes into the situation by some sort of act of dishonor. The TyRhainean government is referred to as an Imperium or Imperial Empire. Given that the TyRhainean race has waged a successful war with the Jovians, it seems likely that the Imperium is a well-organized government. The general impression created is that the Imperium is an aggressive organization lacking compassion, as it is shown that the TyRhainean have destroyed outright many other World Plates that have allied, wittingly or otherwise, with the Jovians, in accordance with the TyRhainean desire to wipe all trace of the Jovians from the existence. There is a peace movement within the TyRhainean culture, a representative of which appears members of the TyRhainean have cooperated with Jovians to find a solution to their biological problems at undisclosed times in the past. The impression is made that cooperation dates back at least several centuries.


TyRhaineans are mostly all tall and large; seven feet is not unusual, as the women are but slightly shorter around 6 foot. They are also fast and strong. TyRhaineans society is bound by a wide variety of rules and strictures, violation of which can have consequences as severe as death. Ancient Tykhainia was moderately primitive humanoid society based on tribal leadership and strong codes of war. Led by a high male tier, their customs and traditions forbid shows of cowardice-Walleer, and even forbid strangers to touch the wife of the high Council Member-. This species tends toward resolving conflicts with their blades rather than with their words. A few of these include: • No other man may touch the wife of a High Council Member. Doing so is punishable by death, because it considered an attempt to usurp his possessions and property-that wife is not only partial owner, but caretaker of the family unites. The heir to the next Generation of the TyRhainean Empire. The TyRhaineans also believe the perfect mate is the perfect woman, in she must physically strong of mind, will and body, If she shows fear or lack of any of these qualities, she not worthy of being ones mate-or Suool Khaar-Beloved Mate. • The heir of a deposed TyRhainean High Council Member is traditionally killed by the usurper; if the heir is not yet born, then the mother is killed before birth can occur. • If a woman offers a man something such as a gift, and he accepts, her nearest male relative must try to kill the recipient. This form of challenge is considered an honor; the TyRhaineans value combat even over love. • TyRhaineans value honesty, and accept the word even of strangers. But if one's word is proved valueless, the offended TyRhaineans will try to kill the offender. To say that someone’s word is unimportant and that you do not hear him is equivalent to accusing him of lying. • TyRhaineans value hospitality, and demonstrate it to anyone who does not give them reason to consider him an enemy. • TyRhaineans value the courageous, and disdain the fearful or weak. • TyRhaineans believe that the strong should survive, and the weak and sick die. They have little use for doctors or medicines. There children and young are taught to fight there way through life. The Victor not only gains honor but the losers titles and possession, for losing. He must either hide away as a coward or proves him or herself as a TyRhainean Warrior. It is felt, that one individual is not worthy to fight survival, and one is worthy to either live or be recognized as a citizen of worth. • When aroused to anger, a TyRhaineans acts quickly; he does not stop to ponder his course of action, but usually simply attacks whoever has angered or offended him. • Their society is based on war and combat; ritual suicide is often preferred over living life as a crippled warrior, and may allow a warrior to die with honor. To be captured rather than killed in battle brings dishonor to not only the captive but his descendants. Death is depicted as a time for celebration, not grief. • TyRhainean believe a brave warrior can either take a life or give a worthy opponent his or her life back, in return for his or her own.

Other ThingsEdit

TyRhaineans language and names often contain a double vowel combination; this often breaks the word into extra syllables. For example the title Ackheer is often, but not consistently, pronounced "Akh Khear". The name Akheer is pronounced "ak Khear", with a stop between "a" and "ear".Many other TyRhainean words follow similar example, such cowardice-Walleer.Suool Khaar-Sool Khaar-Beloved Mate. Sarkhaan-Lord-pronounced Saar -Khaar.== The Hign Sarkhaan(tē'-îr, tēr) is the title of the ruler of the Ten Nations of the TyRhainean Empire.


TyRhaineans fight hand to hand with swords and knives. They also hand held Stun batons, to subdue slaves or prisoners, they want to keep for loborers, captives or other uses. At ranges of up to one hundred yards, they can accurately throw a three bladed disc called a Khaarhat; this weapon, in the hands of a skilled user, is deadly. The Khaarhat was a melee weapon. It is a three-sided bladed weapon used by tribal warriors on planet Tykhainia III. It was highly effective at ranges of up to 100 meters.


The Hign (tē'-îr, tēr) is the title of the ruler of the Ten Nations of the TyRhainean Empire.

File:MG 0008.jpg

File:IMG 6969.jpg


Parachuting, also known as skydiving, is the activity of jumping from enough height to deploy a fabric parachute and land.

The history of diving starts with Andre-Jacques Garnerin who made successful parachute jumps from a hot-air balloon in 1797. The military developed parachuting technology as a way to save aircrews from emergencies aboard balloons and aircraft in flight, later as a way of delivering soldiers to the battlefield. Early competitions date back to the 1930s, and it became an international sport in 1951.

Parachuting is performed as a recreational activity and a competitive sport, as well as for the deployment of military personnel Airborne forces and occasionally forest firefighters.

A fixed base operator at a sky diving airport will operates one or more aircraft that takes groups of skydivers up for a fee. An individual jumper can go up in a light aircraft such as a Cessna C-172 or C-182.  In busier dropping zones (DZ) larger aircraft may be used such as the Cessna Caravan C208, De Havilland Twin Otter DHC6 or Short Skyvan.

A typical jump involves individuals jumping out of an aircraft (usually an airplane, but sometimes a helicopter or even the gondola of a balloon), at approximately 4,000 meters (around 13,000 feet) altitude, and free-falling for a period of time (about a minute)<ref></ref> before activating a parachute to slow the landing down to safe speeds (about 5 to 7 minutes).

When the parachute opens (usually the parachute will be fully inflated by 2,500 feet) the jumper can control the direction and speed with toggles on the end of steering lines attached to the trailing edge of the parachute, and can aim for the landing site and come to a relatively gentle stop. All modern sport parachutes are self-inflating "ram-air" wings that provide control of speed and direction similar to the related paragliders. Purists in either sport would note that paragliders have much greater lift and range, but that parachutes are designed to absorb the stresses of deployment at terminal velocity.

By manipulating the shape of the body a skydiver can generate turns, forward motion, backwards motion, and even lift.  

When leaving an aircraft, for a few seconds a skydiver continues to travel forwards as well as down, due to the momentum created by the plane's speed (known as throw-forward).  The perception of a change from horizontal to vertical flight is known as the "relative wind", or informally as "being on the hill".  In freefall, skydivers generally do not experience a "falling" sensation because the resistance of the air to their body at speeds above about Template:Convert provides some feeling of weight and direction.  At normal exit speeds for aircraft (approx Template:Convert) there is little feeling of falling just after exit, but jumping from a balloon or helicopter can create this sensation.  Skydivers reach terminal velocity (around Template:Convert for belly to Earth orientations, 150-200 mph (240-320 km/h) for head down orientations) and are no longer accelerating towards the ground. At this point the sensation is as of a hard wind.  


File:Parachuting - Russian flag.jpg

Many skydivers make their first jump with an experienced and trained instructor - this type of skydive may be in the form of a tandem skydive. During the tandem jump the jumpmaster is responsible for the stable exit, maintaining a stable freefall position, and activating and controlling the parachute. Other training methods include static line, IAD (Instructor Assisted Deployment), and AFF (Accelerated Free fall) also known as Progressive Free-Fall (PFF) in Canada.

At larger dropzones, training in the sport is often conducted by full-time instructors and coaches. Commercial centers often provide year-round availability, larger aircraft, and highly experienced staff.

In areas where winter (or monsoons) gets in the way of year-round operation, commercial skydiving centers are less common and the parachuting activity may be by clubs. These clubs tend to use smaller aircraft. Training may be offered (by instructors who are tested and certified in exactly the same way as their commercial counterparts) in occasional classes or as demand warrants.  These clubs tend to be weekend only operations as the majority of the staff have full-time jobs during the week. Club members will often visit larger centers for holidays, events, and for some concentrated exposure to the latest techniques.


Parachuting has complex skills that can take thousands of jumps to master, but the basics are often fully understood and useful during the first few jumps. There are four basic areas of skill: basic safety, free fall maneuvers, parachute operation, and landing.

===Free-fall maneuvers===
In freefall most skydivers start by learning to maintain a stable belly to earth "arch" position<ref> Freefall stable body position</ref>. In this position the average fall rate is around Template:Convert. Learning a stable arch position is a basic skill essential for a reliable parachute deployment. Next, jumpers learn to move or turn in any direction while remaining belly to earth. Using these skills a group of jumpers can create sequences of formations on a single jump, a discipline formerly known as relative work (RW) and now as formation skydiving (FS). In the late 1980s more experienced jumpers started experimenting with freeflying, falling in any orientation other than belly to earth. Today many jumpers start freeflying soon after they earn their license, bypassing the traditional flat-flying stepping stone.

===Parachute operation and landing===

The decision of when to deploy the parachute is a matter of safety. A parachute should be deployed sufficiently high to give the parachutist time to handle a malfunction. Template:Convert is the practical minimum for advanced skydivers.<ref>2007 SIM<!-- Bot generated title --></ref>  Skydivers monitor their altimeters during freefall to decide when to open their parachutes. Many skydivers open higher to practice their parachute flying skills. During a "hop-and-pop," a jump in which the parachute is deployed immediately upon exiting the aircraft, it is not uncommon to be under canopy as high as 1200 to 1500 meters (4000 to 5000 ft).

Parachute flying involves two challenges. Firstly to avoid injury and secondly to land where planned, often on a designated target. Some experienced skydivers enjoy performing aerobatic maneuvers with parachutes, the most notable being the "Swoop". This is a thrilling, but dangerous maneuver entailing a steep, high speed landing approach, before leveling off a couple of feet above the ground to maintain a fast glide parallel to the surface. Swoops as far as Template:Convert have been achieved.

A modern parachute or canopy "wing" can glide substantial distances.  Elliptical canopies go faster and farther, and some small, highly loaded canopies glide faster than it is possible to run, which can make them very challenging to land. A highly experienced skydiver using a very small canopy can achieve over Template:Convert horizontal speeds in landing.

Today, the majority of skydiving related injuries and deaths happen under a fully opened and functioning parachute. The most common cause being poorly-executed, radical maneuvers near to the ground, such as hook turns, or landing flares performed either too high or too low.<ref></ref>

Despite the perception of danger, fatalities are rare. However, each year a number of people are hurt or killed parachuting world-wide.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> About 30 skydivers are killed each year in the US; roughly one death for every 100,000 jumps.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In the US and in most of the western world skydivers are required to carry two parachutes. The reserve parachute must be periodically inspected and re-packed (whether used or not) by a certificated parachute rigger (in the US, an FAA certificated parachute rigger). Many skydivers use an automatic activation device (AAD) that opens the reserve parachute at a safe altitude in the event of failing to activate the main canopy themselves. Most skydivers wear a visual altimeter, but increasingly many also use audible altimeters fitted to their helmet.

Injuries and fatalities occurring under a fully functional parachute usually happen because the skydiver performed unsafe maneuvers or made an error in judgment while flying their canopy, typically resulting in a high speed impact with the ground or other hazards on the ground.<ref></ref>  One of the most common sources of injury is a low turn under a high-performance canopy and while swooping.  Swooping is the advanced discipline of gliding parallel to the ground during landing.
File:Senegal soldiers - parachute jump.jpg

Changing wind conditions are another risk factor. In conditions of strong winds, and turbulence during hot days the parachutist can be caught in downdrafts close to the ground. Shifting winds can cause a crosswind or downwind landing which have a higher potential for injury due to the wind speed adding to the landing speed.

Equipment failure rarely causes fatalities and injuries. Approximately one in a thousand deployments of a main parachute results in a malfunctionTemplate:Citation needed.  Ram-air parachutes typically spin uncontrollably when malfunctioned, and must be jettisoned before deploying the reserve parachute.  Reserve parachutes are packed and deployed differently, they are also designed more conservatively and built and tested to more exacting standards so they are more reliable than main parachutes, but the real safety advantage comes from the probability of an unlikely main malfunction multiplied by the even less likely probability of a reserve malfunction. This yields an even smaller probability of a double malfunction although the possibility of a main malfunction that cannot be cutaway causing a reserve malfunction is a
very real risk.

Parachuting disciplines such as BASE jumping or those that involve equipment such as wing suit flying and sky surfing have a higher risk factor due to the lower mobility of the jumper and the greater risk of entanglement. For this reason these disciplines are generally practiced by experienced jumpers.

Depictions in commercial films — notably Hollywood action movies — usually overstate the dangers of the sport. Often, the characters in such films are shown performing feats that are physically impossible without special effects assistance.  In other cases, their practices would cause them to be grounded or shunned at any safety-conscious drop zone or club.  USPA member drop zones in the US and Canada are required to have an experienced jumper act as a "safety officer" (in Canada DSO - Drop Zone Safety Officer; in the U.S. S&TA - Safety and Training Advisor) who is responsible for dealing with the jumpers who violate rules, regulations, or otherwise act in a fashion deemed unsafe by the appointed individual.

In many countries, either the local regulations or the liability-conscious prudence of the dropzone owners require that parachutists must have attained the age of majority before engaging in the sport.

===Parachuting and weather===
Parachuting in poor weather, especially with thunderstorms, high winds, and dust devils can be a dangerous activity. Reputable drop zones will suspend normal operations during inclement weather.

There are several disciplines to embrace within parachuting. Each of these is enjoyed by both the recreational (weekend) and the competitive participants. There is even a small group of professionals who earn their living with parachuting. They win competitions having cash prizes or are employed or sponsored by skydiving related manufacturers.

Parachutists can participate both in competitive and in purely recreational skydiving events. World championships are held regularly in locations offering flat terrain and clear skies. An exception is Paraski, where winter weather and ski-hill terrain are required.

Types of parachuting include:


* Accuracy landing - landing as close as possible to a target.
* BASE jumping - from buildings, antennas, bridges (spans) and cliffs (earth).
* Blade running - a kind of slalom with a parachute.
* Big-ways - formation skydiving with many people all falling belly to earth.
* Canopy formation - making formations with other parachutists while under canopies, known also as canopy relative work or simply CRW (CRew)
* Canopy piloting - also known as 'swooping'.
* Formation skydiving - making formations during freefall, known also as relative work or simply deployment-position RW
* Freefall style
* Freeflying - flying in multiple orientations (i.e. head down, flocking, and sitflying). A more advanced approach to skydiving.
* Freestyle skydiving
* Military parachuting
** Treejumping
* Para-ski
* Speed Skydiving - represents the fastest non-motorized sport on Earth, with speed in excess of 500 km/h (310 mph)
* Skysurfing - skydiving with a board strapped to the feet.
* Vertical Formation Skydiving - a subset of formation skydiving that uses high-speed freeflying body positions instead of bellyflying (known also as VRW)
* Wingsuit flying - skydiving with a suit which provides extra lift, and powered skydiving where the wingsuit flyer adds propulsion.

== Training ==
File:Parachuting Training.jpg

Skydiving can be practised without jumping. Vertical wind tunnels are used to practice for free fall ("indoor skydiving" or "bodyflight"), while virtual reality parachute simulators are used to practice parachute control.

Beginning skydivers seeking training have the following options:

*Tandem skydiving
*Static line
*Instructor Assisted Deployment
*Accelerated Freefall

A program where students accomplish their first jump as a solo freefall is offered at the United States Air Force Academy.  The program is called AM490, one in a series of airmanship courses at the school. While typically open only to cadets, Winfield W. Scott Jr., the school's superintendent, went through this program when he was nearly 60 years old.

== Parachute deployment ==
At a skydiver's deployment altitude, the individual manually deploys a small pilot-chute which acts as a drogue, catching air and pulling out the main parachute or the main canopy.  There are two principal systems in use : the "throwaway", where the skydiver pulls a toggle attached to the top of the pilot-chute stowed in a small pocket outside the main container : and the "pull-out", where the skydiver pulls a small pad attached to the pilot-chute which is stowed inside the container.

Throwaway pilot-chute pouches are usually positioned at the bottom of the container - the B.O.C. deployment system - but older harnesses often have leg-mounted pouches.  The latter are safe for flat-flying, but unsuitable for freestyle or head-down flying.

The pilot-chute is connected to a line known as the "bridle", in turn attached to a small deployment bag which has the folded parachute inside and the lines stowed in rubber bands across the top. At the bottom of the container which holds the main parachute is a fabric loop which, during packing, is fed through grommets on each of four flaps that close the container.

Attached to the bridle is a curved pin which is inserted through the closing loop after it has been fed through each of these grommets. When the pilotchute is thrown out, it catches the wind and pulls the pin out of the closing loop, allowing the pilot-chute to pull the deployment bag from the container. The parachute lines are pulled loose from rubber bands, through which they were stowed during packing, and extend as the canopy starts to open. A rectangular piece of fabric called the "slider" (which separates the parachute lines into four main groups fed through grommets in the four respective corners of the slider) slows the opening of the parachute and works its way down until the canopy is fully open and the slider is just above the head of the skydiver. The slider slows and controls the deployment of the parachute. Without a slider the parachute would inflate violently fast and the parachute would be destroyed by the wind drag/rapid deceleration. During a normal deployment, a skydiver will generally experience a few seconds of intense deceleration, in the realm of 3 to 4 G, while the parachute slows the descent from Template:Convert to approximately Template:Convert.

If a skydiver experiences a malfunction of their main parachute which they cannot correct, they pull a "cut-away" handle on the front right-hand side of their harness (on the chest) which will release the main canopy from the harness/container.  Once free from the malfunctioning main canopy, the reserve canopy can be activated manually by pulling a second handle on the front left harness. Some containers are fitted with a connecting line from the main to reserve parachutes - known as a Reserve Static Line (RSL) - which pulls opens the reserve container faster than a manual release could.  Whichever method is used, a spring loaded pilotchute then extracts the reserve parachute from the upper half of the container.

In addition to  disciplines for which people train, purchase equipment and get coaching, the recreational skydiver finds ways to just have fun.

===Hit and rock===
One example of this is "Hit and Rock", which is a variant of Accuracy landing devised to let people of varying skill levels compete for fun. "Hit and Rock" is originally from POPS (Parachutists Over Phorty Society). See the POPS main site

The object is to land as close as possible to the chair, remove the parachute harness, sprint to the chair, sit fully in the chair and rock back and forth at least one time. The contestant is timed from the moment that feet touch the ground until that first rock is completed.  This event is considered a race.

===Pond swooping===
Pond swooping is a form of competitive parachuting wherein canopy pilots attempt to touch down at a glide across a small body of water, and onto the shore. Events provide lighthearted competition, rating accuracy, speed, distance and style. Points and peer approval are reduced when a participant "chows", or fails to reach shore and sinks into the water.

===Swoop and chug the beer===
Very similar to Hit and Rock, except the target is replaced by a case of beer.  Each jumper is timed from the moment his feet touch the ground until he "chugs", or rapidly drinks the can of beer and places the empty can upside-down on his head. Drop zones enforce rules prohibiting anyone from jumping any more that day once alcohol has been consumed. Therefore, the Swoop and Chug (also known as Hit & Chug) is usually reserved for the last load of the day.

A cross-country jump is a skydive where the participants open their parachutes immediately after jumping, with the intention of covering as much ground under canopy as possible. Usual distance from Jump Run to the dropzone is 10 miles (16 kilometers).

File:Technoavia smg-92 turbo finist ha-ydf at kemble arp.jpg

===Camera flying===
In camera flying, a cameraman or camerawoman jumps with other skydivers and films them. The camera flyer often wears specialized equipment, such as a winged jumpsuit to provide a greater range of fall rates, helmet-mounted video and still cameras, mouth operated camera switches, and optical sights. Some skydivers specialize in camera flying and a few earn fees for filming students on coached jumps or tandem-jumpers, or producing professional footage and photographs for the media.  

There is always a demand for good camera flyers in the skydiving community, as many of the competitive skydiving disciplines are judged from a video record.

===Night jumps===
Parachuting is not always restricted to daytime hours; experienced skydivers sometimes perform night jumps. For obvious safety reasons, this requires more equipment than a usual daytime jump and in most jurisdictions requires both an advanced skydiving license (at least a B-License in the U.S.) and night rating training. A lighted altimeter (preferably accompanied with an audible altimeter) is a must. Skydivers performing night jumps often take flashlights up with them so that they can check their canopies have properly deployed.

Visibility to other skydivers and other aircraft is also a consideration; FAA regulations require skydivers jumping at night to be wearing a light visible for three miles (5 km) in every direction, and to turn it on once they are under canopy. A chemlight(glowstick) is a good idea on a night jump.

Night jumpers should be made aware of the Dark Zone, when landing at night. Above 100 feet jumpers flying their canopy have a good view of the landing zone normally because of reflected ambient light/moon light. Once they get close to the ground, this ambient light source is lost, because of the low angle of reflection. The lower they get, the darker the ground looks. At about 100 feet and below it may seem that they are landing in a black hole. Suddenly it becomes very dark, and the jumper hits the ground soon after. This ground rush should be explained and anticipated for the first time night jumper.

===Stuff jumps===

With the availability of a rear door aircraft and a large, unpopulated space to jump over, 'stuff' jumps become possible. In these jumps the skydivers jump out with some object. Rubber raft jumps are popular, where the jumpers sit in a rubber raft. Cars, bicycles, motorcycles, hoovers, water tanks and inflatable companions have also been thrown out the back of an aircraft. At a certain height the jumpers break off from the object and deploy their parachutes, leaving it to smash into the ground at terminal velocity.

==Parachuting organizations==
National parachuting associations exist in many countries, many affiliated with the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI), to promote their sport. In most cases, national representative bodies, as well as local dropzone operators, require that participants carry certification, attesting to their training, their level of experience in the sport, and their proven competence. Anyone who cannot produce such bona-fides is treated as a student, requiring close supervision.

The primary organization in the United States is the United States Parachute Association (USPA)[1].  This organization hands out licenses and ratings for all American skydiving activities based on safety qualifications.  The USPA governs safety in the sport of skydiving as this is the organizations sole responsibility and also publishes the Skydivers Information Manual (SIM) and many other resources. In Canada, the Canadian Sport Parachuting Association is the lead organization.  In South Africa the sport is managed by the Parachute Association of South Africa, and in the United Kingdom by the British Parachute Association.

Within the sport, associations promote safety, technical advances, training-and-certification, competition and other interests of their members. Outside their respective communities, they promote their sport to the public, and often intercede with government regulators.

Competitions are organized at regional, national and international levels in most these disciplines. Some of them offer amateur competition.

Many of the more photogenic/videogenic variants also enjoy sponsored events with prize money for the winners.

The majority of jumpers tend to be non-competitive, enjoying the opportunity to "get some air" with their friends on weekends and holidays. The atmosphere of their gatherings is relaxed, sociable and welcoming to newcomers. Party events, called "boogies" are arranged at local, national and international scale, each year, attracting both young jumpers and their elders - Parachutists Over Phorty (POPs), Skydivers Over Sixty (SOS) and even older groups.

Notable people associated with the sport include Valery Rozov, a gold medalist from the 1998 X Games, who has had more than 1,500 jumps. Georgia Thompson ("Tiny") Broadwick is one of the first American skydivers, and she made the first freefall.
File:IMG 0028.jpg

==Drop zones==
Main article: Drop zone
In parachuting, a drop zone or DZ is the area above and around a location where a parachutist freefalls and expects to land. It is usually situated beside a small airport, often sharing the facility with other general aviation activities. There is generally a landing area designated for parachute landings. Drop zone staff include the DZO (drop zone operator or owner), manifestors, pilots, instructors, coaches, cameramen, packers, riggers and other general staff.

File:Amandas skydive.jpg

Costs in the sport are not trivial. As new technological advances or performance enhancements are introduced, they tend to nudge equipment prices higher. Similarly, the average skydiver carries more equipment than in earlier years, with safety devices (such as an AAD) contributing a significant portion of the cost.
A full set of brand-new equipment can easily cost as much as a new motorcycle or half a small car. The market is not large enough to permit the steady lowering of prices that is seen with some other equipment like computers.

In many countries, the sport supports a used-equipment market. For beginners that is the preferred way to acquire "gear", and has two advantages:

* First, they can try types of parachutes (there are many) to learn which style they prefer, before paying the price for new equipment.
* Second, they can acquire a complete system and all the peripheral items in a short time and at reduced cost.

Novices generally start with parachutes that are large and docile relative to the jumper's body-weight. As they improve in skill and confidence, they can graduate to smaller, faster, more responsive parachutes. An active jumper might change parachute canopies several times in the space of a few years, while retaining his or her first harness/container and peripheral equipment.

Older jumpers, especially those who jump only on weekends in summer, sometimes tend in the other direction, selecting slightly larger, more gentle parachutes that do not demand youthful intensity and reflexes on each jump. They may be adhering to the maxim that: "There are old jumpers and there are bold jumpers, but there are no old, bold jumpers."

Most parachuting equipment is ruggedly designed and is enjoyed by several owners before being retired. Purchasers are always advised to have any potential purchases examined by a qualified parachute rigger. A rigger is trained to spot signs of damage or misuse. Riggers also keep track of industry product and safety bulletins, and can therefore determine if a piece of equipment is up-to-date and serviceable.

*The world's highest tandem skydive jump took place above Mt.Everest
* World's largest freefall: February 8, 2006 in Udon Thani, Thailand (400 linked persons in freefall).
* Largest head down formation (vertical formation): July 31, 2009 at Skydive Chicago in Ottawa, Illinois, USA (108 linked skydivers in head to Earth attitude).
* World's largest canopy formation: 100, set on November 21, 2007 in Lake Wales, Florida, USA. [2]
*Largest wingsuit formation: November 12, 2008, Lake Elsinore, California, USA (71 wingsuit jumpers).[3]
* Don Kellner holds the record for the most parachute jumps, with a total of over 36,000 jumps. [4]
* Cheryl Stearns (USA) holds the record for the most parachute descents by a woman, with a total of 15,560 in August 2003.
* Capt. Joe W. Kittinger achieved the highest and longest (14 min) parachute jump in history on August 16, 1960 as part of a United States Air Force program testing high-altitude escape systems. Wearing a pressure suit, Capt. Kittinger ascended for an hour and a half in an open gondola attached to a balloon to an altitude of Template:Convert, where he then jumped. The fall lasted 4 minutes and 36 seconds, during which Capt. Kittinger reached speeds of 1142 km/h (714 mph) <ref>Joseph W. Kittinger - USAF Museum Gathering of Eagles<!-- Bot generated title --></ref>. The air in the upper atmosphere is less dense and thus leads to lower air-resistance and a much higher terminal velocity.
* Adrian Nicholas holds the record for the longest freefall. A 4 minutes and 55 seconds wingsuit jump made on March 12 1999.[5]
* Jay Stokes holds the record for most parachute descents in a single day at 640. [6]
* The Oldest Skydiver: Frank Moody, aged 101, made a tandem jump on June 6, 2004 at Skydive Cairns. The Tandem Master was Karl Eitrich and the event was filmed by Wayne Donovan and Jason Cryan.
* In July 1986, Dominique Jacquet and Jean-Pascal Oron established the first world record in landing at high altitude by a  landing on the "Roof of Europe", [Mont Blanc]] at 4807 m.Template:Citation needed This record has not yet been broken. These two men are also the inventors of skysurfing in year 1997.Template:Citation needed
*Marco Wiederkehr of Liechtenstein holds the world speed skydiving record with 511.63 km/h (317.91 mph). [7]

==See also==
Template:Extreme Sports
*Base jump
*Drop zone
*Tandem skydiving

== Notes ==
*Malone, Jo (June, 2000). Birth of Freefly. Skydive the Mag.

== External links ==
    | NOT A COLLECTION OF LINKS.                                              |
    |                                                                         |
    |               Excessive or inappropriate links WILL BE DELETED.         |
    |  See Wikipedia:External links and Wikipedia:Spam for details.   |
    |                                                                         |
    | If there are already plentiful links, please propose additions or       |
    | replacements on this article's discussion page.  Or submit your link    |
    | to the appropriate category at the Open Directory Project (|
    | and link back to that category using the Template:Dmoz template.             |

ar:هبوط بالمظلات
id:Terjun payung
he:צניחה חופשית
tr:Paraşütle atlama

Ad blocker interference detected!

Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.