File:SHAEF Schulterstück.jpg

Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (abbreviated as SHAEF, pronounced "shafe"), was the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces in north west Europe, from late 1943 until the end of World War II. General Dwight D. Eisenhower was in command of SHAEF throughout its existence. The rank itself shares a common lineage with Supreme Allied Commander Europe and Atlantic, but they are different titles.

== History during the Second World War==

Eisenhower transferred from command of the Mediterranean Theater of Operations to command SHAEF, which was formed in Teddington, London, from December 1943, in what is now Bushy Park; a street named Shaef Way remains to this day. Its staff took the outline plan for Operation Overlord created by Lieutenant General Sir Frederick E. Morgan, COSSAC (Chief of Staff to the Supreme Commander Allied Forces), and Major General Ray Barker.<ref> Harrison, Gordon A., Cross Channel Attack </ref> Morgan, who had been appointed chief of staff to the supreme Allied Commander (designate) in mid-March 1943 began planning for the invasion of Europe before Eisenhower's appointment.<ref> See: Template:Cite book, page 71.</ref> and moulded it into the final version, which was executed on 6 June 1944. That process was shaped by Eisenhower and the land forces commander for the initial part of the invasion, General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery.

SHAEF remained in the United Kingdom until sufficient forces were ashore to justify its transfer to France.<ref>Eisenhower moved to Normandy and set up an advance command post on the morning of 7 August 1944. See: Template:Cite book, page 92.</ref> At that point, Montgomery ceased to command all land forces but continued as Commander in Chief of the British 21st Army Group (21 AG) on the eastern wing of the Normandy bridgehead and the American 12th Army Group (12 AG) commanded by Lieutenant General Omar Bradley was created as the western wing of the bridgehead. As the breakout from Normandy took place, the Allies launched the invasion of southern France on 15 August 1944 with the American 6th Army Group (6 AG) under the command of Lieutenant General Jacob L. Devers. During the invasion of southern France, the 6 AG was under the command of the Allied Forces Headquarters (AFHQ) of the Mediterranean Theatre of Operations, but after one month command passed to SHAEF. By this time the three Army Groups had taken up the positions on the Western Front in which they would remain until the end of the war—the British 21 AG to the North, the American 12 AG in the middle and the 6 AG to the South.  By December 1944, SHAEF had established itself in the Trianon Palace Hotel in Versailles, France.<ref>Template:Cite book, page 199.</ref> On 26 April 1945 SHAEF moved to Frankfurt.<ref name="lecture">Template:Cite web</ref>

== Divisions ==
File:SHAEF badge in Arc de Triomphe .JPG

SHAEF commanded the largest number of formations ever committed to one operation on the Western Front, with American, French army of liberation, British and Canadian Army forces. It had three Army Groups under its command, which controlled a total of eight field armies;

*1st Allied Airborne Army
*British 21st Army Group
**1st Canadian Army
**2nd British Army
*American 12th Army Group
**1st United States Army
**3rd United States Army
**9th United States Army
**15th United States Army
*American 6th Army Group
**1st French Army
**7th United States Army

SHAEF also controlled substantial naval forces during Operation Neptune, the assault phase of Overlord, and two tactical air forces: the US Ninth Air Force and the RAF Second Tactical Air Force. Allied strategic bomber forces in the UK also came under its command during Operation Neptune.

*Supreme Allied Commander: General Dwight David Eisenhower
*Deputy Supreme Allied Commander: Air Chief Marshal Arthur Tedder
*Ground Forces Commanders:
**Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery (21st Army Group)
**Lieutenant General Omar N. Bradley (12th Army Group)
**Lieutenant General Jacob L. Devers (6th Army Group)
*Air Forces Commander: Air Marshal Trafford Leigh-Mallory
*Naval Forces Commander: Admiral Bertram Ramsay.<ref name="Unity of Command">Template:Cite web</ref>

==After WWII==
After the surrender of Germany, SHAEF was dissolved on 14 July 1945 and, concerning the US forces, was replaced by US Forces, European Theater (USFET).<ref name="lecture"/> USFET was reorganized as EUCOM (US Forces, European Command) on 15 March 1947.<ref name="lecture"/>

== References ==

7. Winters, Major Dick, with Cole C. Kingseed (2006). Beyond Band of Brothers: The War Memoirs of Major Dick Winters. Berkley Hardcover. ISBN 9780425208137., page 210.

== External links ==
*Records of Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
*United States Army in World War II European Theater of Operations The Supreme Command By Forrest C. Pogue. OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF MILITARY HISTORY, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, WASHINGTON, D.C., 1954. Library of Congress Catalog Number: 53-61717
*BBC WW2 People's War article on Uxbridge SHAEF and London Bushey
*Directive to Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force Dwight D. Eisenhower at his nomination
*Original Document; Order of the day
*Papers of Ernest R. "Tex" Lee, military aide to General Eisenhower, 1942-1945, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
*Papers of Thor Smith, Public Relations Division, SHAEF, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library

ca:Quarter General Suprem Aliat de la Força Expedicionària
de:Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force
es:Fuerza Expedicionaria Aliada
fr:Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force
nl:Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force
no:Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force
pl:Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force
ru:Главное командование союзных сил
sv:Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force

Ad blocker interference detected!

Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.