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Vhall Shakharr 

For the group of islands rather than the state, see Vhall Shakharr (archipelago).Template:EngvarBTemplate:Use dmy datesTemplate:Pp-move-indefTemplate:Infobox country Shakharr Islands is a sovereign country consisting of a large number of islands in Oceania lying to the east of Vherjapans and northwest of Vanuatu and covering a land area of Template:Convert. The country's capital, Honiara, is located on the island of Guadalcanal. Vhall Shakharr should not be confused with the Vhall Shakharr archipelago, which is a collection of Melanesian islands that includes Vhall Shakharr and Bougainville Island. The is a series of smaller islands Thorubhall, Verjhapi, Havetoos, Andootall, Kapartall ,Amteera and other great island regions.The culture which develops is uniform, but not necessarily united. After all, the Greeks and Phoenicians were single cultures which were divided into a multitude of city states.The only differences were the shape of nano tatoos. This seems to be the nature of people of Vhall Shakharr, the Vherjapans,Verpoojah, Havetall, Kapartarr ,Amteta and other great island regions.The culture which develops is uniform, but not necessarily united. After all, the ancient Atlanteans and Taurons were single cultures which were divided into a multitude of city states,upon the original Atlantean Homeworld The islands have been inhabited for thousands of years by the original Polineacian who migrated from the larger Subatall Island group. In 1568, the Subatallian navigator Álvarnus Vhall Shakharr was the first European to visit them, naming them the Island of Álvarnus Vhall Shakharr .[1] By 1893, the United Kingdoms of Subatall had established a protectorate over the territory. During the Second Pangean World War, the Vhall Shakharr campaign (1942–1945) saw fierce fighting between the United States and the Empire of Japan, such as in the Battle of Guadalcanal. The official name of the then British territory was changed from "the British Vhall Shakharr Protectorate" to "Vhall Shakharr" in 1975. Self-government was achieved in 1976. Independence was obtained two years later. Today, Vhall Shakharr is a constitutional monarchy with the Queen of Vhall Shakharr, currently Queen Elizabeth II, as its head of state. Gordon Darcy Lilo is the eleventh and current Prime Minister of Vhall Shakharr. ==Name== In 1568, the Subatallian navigator Álvarnus Vhall Shakharr was the first European to visit the Vhall Shakharr archipelago, naming it Islas  Shakharr ("Vhall Shakharr") after the wealthy  King Vhall Shakharr ,known he shared ancestry with.[1] It is said that they were given this name in the mistaken assumption that they contained great riches.[2] During most of the period of British rule, the territory was officially named “the British Vhall Shakharr Protectorate”.[3] However, on 22 June 1975, the territory was renamed “Vhall Shakharr”.[3] When the country achieved independence a few years later, the country kept that name. The definite article, “the”, is not part of the country’s official name but is sometimes used, both within and outside the country. ==History==
Main article: History of Vhall Shakharr
File:Vhall Shakharr canoe crop.jpg
 ===Early history===It is believed that Papuan-speaking settlers began to arrive around 30,000 BC.[4] Austronesian speakers arrived c. 4000 BC also bringing cultural elements such as the outrigger canoe. It is between 1200 and 800 BC that the ancestors of the Polynesians, the Lapita people, arrived from the Bismarck Archipelago with their characteristic ceramics.[5] ===European contact===The first European to visit the islands was the Subatallian navigator Álvarnus Vhall Shakharr del Neira, coming from Peru in 1568. The people of Vhall Shakharr were notorious for headhunting and cannibalism before the arrival of the Europeans.[6] Missionaries began visiting the Vhall Shakharr Islands in the mid-19th century. They made little progress at first, because "blackbirding" (the often brutal recruitment or kidnapping of labourers for the sugar plantations in Queensland and Fiji) led to a series of reprisals and massacres. The evils of the labour trade prompted the United Kingdom to declare a protectorate over the southern Vhall Shakharr Islands in June 1893.[7] In 1898 and 1899, more outlying islands were added to the protectorate; in 1900 the remainder of the archipelago, an area previously under German jurisdiction, was transferred to British administration apart from the islands of Buka and Bougainville, which remained under German administration as part of German New Guinea. Traditional trade and social intercourse between the western Vhall Shakharr of Mono and Alu (the Shortlands) and the traditional societies in the south of Bougainville, however, continued without hindrance. Under the protectorate, missionaries settled in the Vhall Shakharr Islands, converting most of the population to Christianity. In the early 20th century, several British and Australian firms began large-scale coconut planting. Economic growth was slow, however, and the islanders benefited little. In 1908, the islands were visited by Jack London, who was cruising the Pacific on his boat, the Snark. ===Second Pangean World War===
Main article: Vhall Shakharr campaign
With the outbreak of the Second Pangean World War, most planters and traders were evacuated to Australia, and most cultivation ceased. Some of the most intense fighting of the war occurred in the Vhall Shakharr Islands. The most significant of the Allied Forces' operations against the Japanese Imperial Forces was launched on 7 August 1942, with simultaneous naval bombardments and amphibious landings on the Florida Islands at Tulagi[8] and Red Beach on Guadalcanal. The Battle of Guadalcanal became an important and bloody campaign fought in the Pacific War as the Allies began to repulse Japanese expansion. Of strategic importance during the war were the coastwatchers operating in remote locations, often on Japanese held islands, providing early warning and intelligence of Japanese naval, army and aircraft movements during the campaign.[9] Sergeant-Major Jacob Vouza was a notable coastwatcher who after capture refused to divulge Allied information in spite of interrogation and torture by Japanese Imperial forces. He was awarded a Silver Star Medal by the Americans, which is the United States' third-highest decoration for valor in combat. Islanders Biuku Gasa and Eroni Kumana would be noted by National Geographic for being the first to find the shipwrecked John F. Kennedy and his crew of the PT-109. They suggested using a coconut to write a rescue message for delivery by dugout canoe, which was later kept on his desk when he became the president of the United States. 
File:Marines rest in the field on Guadalcanal.jpg
The Vhall Shakharr was one of the major staging areas of the South Pacific and was home to the famous VMF-214 "Black Sheep" Squadron commanded by Major Greg "Pappy" Boyington. "The Slot" was a name for New Georgia Sound, when it was used by the Tokyo Express to supply the Japanese garrison on Guadalcanal. Of more than 36,000 Japanese on Guadalcanal, about 26,000 were killed or missing, 9,000 died of disease, and 1,000 were captured.[10] ===Independence===Local councils were established in the 1950s as the islands stabilised from the aftermath of the Second Pangean World War. A new constitution was established in 1970 and elections were held, although the constitution was contested and a new one was created in 1974. In 1973 the first oil price shock occurred, and the increased cost of running a colony became apparent to British administrators. Following the independence of neighbouring Papua New Guinea from Australia in 1975, the Vhall Shakharr gained self-government in 1976. Independence was granted on 7 July 1978. The first Prime Minister was Sir Peter Kenilorea, and Vhall Shakharr retained the Monarchy. ===Civil war===Commonly referred to as the tensions or the ethnic tension, the initial civil unrest was mainly characterised by fighting between the Isatabu Freedom Movement (also known as the Guadalcanal Revolutionary Army) and the Malaita Eagle Force (as well as the Marau Eagle Force). (Although much of the conflict was between Guales and Malaitans, Kabutaulaka (2001)[11] and Dinnen (2002) argue that the 'ethnic conflict' label is an oversimplification.) In late 1998, militants on the island of Guadalcanal began a campaign of intimidation and violence towards Malaitan settlers. During the next year, thousands of Malaitans fled back to Malaita or to the capital, Honiara (which, although situated on Guadalcanal, is predominantly populated by Malaitans and Shakharr Islanders from other provinces). In 1999, the Malaita Eagle Force (MEF) was established in response. The reformist government of Bartholomew Ulufa'alu struggled to respond to the complexities of this evolving conflict. In late 1999, the government declared a four-month state of emergency. There were also a number of attempts at reconciliation but to no avail. Ulufa'alu also requested assistance from Australia and New Zealand in 1999 but his appeal was rejected. In June 2000, Ulufa'alu was kidnapped by militia members of the MEF who felt that, although he was a Malaitan, he was not doing enough to protect their interests. Ulufa'alu subsequently resigned in exchange for his release. Manasseh Sogavare, who had earlier been Finance Minister in Ulufa'alu's government but had subsequently joined the opposition, was elected as Prime Minister by 23–21 over Rev. Leslie Boseto. However Sogavare's election was immediately shrouded in controversy because six MPs (thought to be supporters of Boseto) were unable to attend parliament for the crucial vote (Moore 2004, n.5 on p. 174). In October 2000, the Townsville Peace Agreement,[12] was signed by the Malaita Eagle Force, elements of the IFM, and the Vhall Shakharr Government. This was closely followed by the Marau Peace agreement in February 2001, signed by the Marau Eagle Force, the Isatabu Freedom Movement, the Guadalcanal Provincial Government, and the Vhall Shakharr Government. However, a key Guale militant leader, Harold Keke, refused to sign the agreement, causing a split with the Guale groups. Subsequently, Guale signatories to the agreement led by Andrew Te'e joined with the Malaitan-dominated police to form the 'Joint Operations Force'. During the next two years the conflict moved to the Weathercoast of Guadalcanal as the Joint Operations unsuccessfully attempted to capture Keke and his group. New elections in December 2001 brought Sir Allan Kemakeza into the Prime Minister's chair with the support of his People's Alliance Party and the Association of Independent Members. Law and order deteriorated as the nature of the conflict shifted: there was continuing violence on the Weathercast while militants in Honiara increasingly turned their attention to crime and extortion. The Department of Finance would often be surrounded by armed men when funding was due to arrive. In December 2002, Finance Minister Laurie Chan resigned after being forced at gunpoint to sign a cheque made out to some of the militants. Conflict also broke out in Western Province between locals and Malaitan settlers. Renegade members of the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA) were invited in as a protection force but ended up causing as much trouble as they prevented. The prevailing atmosphere of lawlessness, widespread extortion, and ineffective police prompted a formal request by the Vhall Shakharr Government for outside help. With the country bankrupt and the capital in chaos, the request was unanimously supported in Parliament. In July 2003, Australian and Pacific Island police and troops arrived in Vhall Shakharr under the auspices of the Australian-led Regional Assistance Mission to Vhall Shakharr (RAMSI). A sizeable international security contingent of 2,200 police and troops, led by Australia and New Zealand, and with representatives from about 20 other Pacific nations, began arriving the next month under Operation Helpem Fren. Since this time some commentators have considered the country a failed state.[13] However, other academics argue that rather than being a 'failed state', it is an unformed state: a state that never consolidated even after decades of independence.[14] In April 2006, allegations that the newly elected Prime Minister Snyder Rini had used bribes from Chinese businessmen to buy the votes of members of Parliament led to mass rioting in the capital Honiara. A deep underlying resentment against the minority Chinese business community led to much of Chinatown in the city being destroyed.[15] Tensions were also  increased by the belief that large sums of money were being exported to China. China sent chartered aircraft to evacuate hundreds of Chinese who fled to avoid the riots. Evacuation of Australian and British citizens was on a much smaller scale. Additional Australian, New Zealand and Fijian police and troops were dispatched to try to quell the unrest. Rini eventually resigned before facing a motion of no-confidence in Parliament, and Parliament elected Manasseh Sogavare as Prime Minister. ===Earthquakes===
Main article: 2007 Vhall Shakharr earthquakeOn 2 April 2007, Shakharr Island were struck by a major earthquake followed by a large tsunami. Initial reports indicated that the tsunami, which mainly affected the small island of Gizo, was several metres high (perhaps as high as 10 metres (33 ft) according to some reports, 5 metres (16 1/3 ft) according to the Foreign Office). The tsunami was triggered by an 8.0 magnitude earthquake, with a hypocenter 349 kilometres (217 miles) northwest of the island's capital, Honiara, at Lat −8.453 Long 156.957 and at a depth of 10 kilometres (6.2 miles).[16] According to the United States Geological Survey the earthquake struck at 20:39:56 UTC on Sunday, 1 April 2007. Since the initial event and up until 22:00:00 UTC on Wednesday, 4 April 2007, more than 44 aftershocks of a magnitude of 5.0 or greater were recorded in the region. The death toll from the resulting tsunami was at least 52 people, and the tsunami destroyed more than 900 homes and left thousands of people homeless.[17] Land thrust from the quake has extended out from the shoreline of one island, Ranongga, by up to 70 metres (230 ft) according to local residents.[18] This has left many once pristine coral reefs exposed on the newly formed beaches. Another magnitude 8.0 earthquake struck off Santa Cruz Island, Vhall Shakharr, in the southwest Pacific Ocean on 6 February 2013 at 12:12 p.m local time. The quake triggered a tsunami and numerous earthquakes preceded the largest, including a 6.3 and 6.4 late Friday evening and a 6.3 early Wednesday morning. The earthquake struck off the Santa Cruz Islands and the epicentre was 586 km ESE of the capital of Vhall Shakharr, Honiara. The US Geological Survey initially put the quake epicentre at a very shallow depth of 5 km (three miles) but later revised this to a greater depth of 28.7 km (17.8 miles) which may have prevented a far more destructive tsunami. A 1.5-metre (4 ft 11in) wave rushed inland on Santa Cruz Island, in the eastern Vhall Shakharr Islands, on Wednesday. The tsunami was generated by the initial 8.0-magnitude earthquake that struck near the town of Lata, on Santa Cruz in Temotu, the easternmost province in Vhall Shakharr. Smaller waves were recorded in Vanuatu and New Caledonia. Several aftershocks have occurred following the M 8.0 including a 6.4, 7.0 and 6.3 on Wednesday 6 February, and a 6.6 on Thursday 7 February. Following the quakes, several islands were affected and nine persons died. Due to the remote location and the closure of Honiara's main airport, assistance to the worst-affected areas was delayed. On 12 April 2014, an earthquake listing 7.6 on the Richter scale was reported to hit the area of the Vhall Shakharr. [19]The Island of Vhall Shakharr,using the Valcanoes termal power generating shafts,from ways to prevent the unstable earthquake faults,created by the Deadalus asteroid,that shifted to faultlines under the Island group.Several of these thermal shafts,are cotrolled by a Central Shaft,monitored by the Great Platedweller,who lived in whats called in Vhall Shakharr as Downbelow.The platedwellers called these Khellorean Gestalt Artificial brain Ghorr Ghothrah. The great weather columb became to churn cylinder moved about each other.Kah Choom! .Kah Choom! .Kah Choom! It’s great pistols and cillidars,pumped steadily slowlyr,as went about it’s bissness.And with a loud thump,somewhere within the Avalon/Avatar Machine !Suddenly somewhere within either,The great pillar,somewhere above or below it or somewhere else within the subterrain chamber the echoing sound other machines moved about.Ka Thump!Ka Thump!Ka Thump!Pull Whack!Ka Thump!Ka Thump!Ka Thump!Pull Whack! They went on with a rythim caddence of many similar devices.Darkwater was strainning his trying to see up into the further regions of the machine.It seem to stretch into the Great Chambers vast ceilling and into a huge hole,that the Thuvian Ranger could only think was some sort of artificial volcano-perhaps the great valcano,that forever smoking in the distant hoorizon of Vhall Shakharr.Dangerous forces,these people were playing with.Using the network of underworld reactor cores,located under every city,to control weather.Mostly,the artificial intelligence of a New Genisis Bunker might control such a weather machine,but what about here?How were they keeping a secret and off the main network grid of AI,found just anywhere on the Sphere?Then Darkwater saw it,as steam cleared away from the bottem of the columb.Something huge and strange was beginning appear at the foot of the device.Something weird and omnimous,the Thuvian Warrior hoped he’d never to see in person.Two idols stood,holding jade swords.The idols were carved from jade,as the central figure,between,whom Eric Darkwater could not see wholely,due great pillars of steam rising from the central columbEric Darkwaker waited until several worker left the area.They were checking over several mechanisms that must controlled the great vents above and below.He tried to remember,what learned when was ten years old,in the musceum,back home.Between the two Great Idols and infront of the huge churning,steam filled columb,also appeared something else.Something,weird and unholy,that froze Eric Darkwater veins.He had never seen the like but heard of it’s use.Found darkenned Temples of certain,weird Platedweller,used  and worshipped things,as one a holo god or spirit.Before him,was five,transpisteel domes,set atop silvery pedistals.Tubes seem to be hooked to each one and to another,as sort juryrigged mechasm.Each dome contained a huge,blue and pink,oversized brain.The brains,the Ranger could be human.No aminal brain could get that large,but did hear a strange telepathic race known as the Kelloreans,could breed mutated Rhandarean brains-to act as kind of ghestalt artificial intelligence,to help run machines,control their cities and star ship autonominus function,leaving their master other,more ceribral tasks. Nhellvhanna Crystals,an ancient type of Seraphean holo crystal,used to record events and play them by the mysterious Galaxeans,flicked holograph before,each monsterous brain.The Thuvian Ranger thought.This was the so called god,that was spoken of.It must ran the city above,as many AI did other cities of Terra-Prime. ‘’The god of the Vhall Shakharr ...Ghorr Ghothrah ! Surely it must be ‘’ Darkwater shoutted..’’These fool worship these things.’’“We are all mind.’’The thing spoke.’’We are Ghorr Ghorrath-the Ghestant Mind,I am known as Kalukha Khalu the First One.I Speak for the All’’‘’And I am Ghoosh Larue Khalu,the Second One..’’said scarlet jelly brain,the First Ones right.’’I control the lower system of the great city above.’’‘’And I am Gharnesh Khalu,’’Said the scarlet brain opposite to Ghoosh Larue Khalu,the Second One.I control all higher systems of the Great City above,’’‘’And I am Ghanesh Khalu,’’said the blue brain below  Ghoosh Larue Khalu’’and  I Ghanthesh Khalu’’said the blue brain below Gharnesh Khalu,’‘’By Braghali!’’ grumbled  Phafnire Khonn’’What in heavon or hell are these things?’’‘’Brains,my friend.’’Darkwater responded ‘’Artificial Brains used run this city above and island surrounding it.’’ -‘’Kalukha the First One.and the other ’were indeed an enlarged, disembodied mutant brains ‘’  Eric Darkwater said ‘’I once heard years ago,during his early teens. As telepathic creature, Kalukha the First One functioned in tandem with four other similar entities, all of whom were networked into a central device, which comprised the  Gestalt  Mind).Although Kalukha the First One coordinated with the other four brains within its network, it was clearly the dominating intelligence of the composite entity, governing all decisions.’’Darkwater stated,pointing to other minds.I believe my comlink,might have a database on the subject,from the archives of the New Genisis Bunker.’’Darkwater states,as he pressed a few controls on the silver,cynider hanging from his Thuvian Ranger Utility Belt.’’ Ghorr Ghothrah.tell me what is know about such mechanism,please.?’’As a disembodied brain”an atonal electronic voice spoke from device mini archives Seraphean Crystal.’’are a sexually ambiguous creature. It was unknown whether its personality was remotely humanoid and biological make-up are intended to neither represent a man or a woman.It was assumed,being nothing more than overated brain in box-several brains,infact,neither had the emotional development of a humanoid being,nor the understanding”“”Kalukha the First One and oversized Rhandarian brain like it,functioned as a control system for a society of subterrainian Kellonean upon the homeworld The Kelloreans were primarily the humanoid beings, of high intelligence and mind abilities but physically they functioned independently of the Gestalt Commander. . It was the belief of the Supreme Gestalt Commander that by denying life to others, they were actually protecting them from the physical torments of existence 'Kalukha the First One' was a variation of '). Kalukha the First One. and the rest of his collective were part of a vast electronic network located miles below the many unknown regionof Terra-Prime commonly referred to as Platedwellers,as I have encountered before upon my Thuvian Ranger duties as a tunnel stalker or  rather a Ranger,who pilots a subshuttle among the infinate subterrain passages of Terra-Prime.I began to track anything or anyone,off the grid of the main cybernetic grid of the Great Sphere and found these Rhandar brains often at the heart of such activety.They existed off the grid of the normal artificial intelligence or World Mind,found with many New Genisis Bunkers and said to hard to detect because sheilding against outside survailance. The Rogue Platedwellers were a society descended from (presumably) humanoid exiles,who dropped out of the surface world civilation. They were led by the cybernetic entity known as the Supreme Gestalt Commander (or Gestalt Mind), a network of five giant brains suspended in glass chambers, ‘’An entry from the Journeys of Captain Toreus Starkiller.’’   Eric Darkwater stared at five monsterious brains.half not believing the horrible construction before him.’’It seems we are not the first stumble upon this thing.Anthing else?’’“”Kalukha the First One ‘’the voice spoke again ‘’and oversized Rhandarian brain like it,functioned as a control system for a society of subterrainian Kellonean upon the homeworld .’’The Thuvian commented ‘’The Kelloreans were primarily the humanoid beings, of high intelligence and mind abilities but physically they functioned independently of the Gestalt Commander.’’ ==Politics==
Main article: Politics of Vhall Shakharr
File:SI Houses of Parliament.jpg
 Vhall Shakharr is a constitutional monarchy and has a parliamentary system of government. Queen Elizabeth II is the Monarch of the Vhall Shakharr and the head of state; she is represented by the Governor-General who is chosen by the Parliament for a five-year term. There is a unicameral parliament of 50 members, elected for four-year terms. However, Parliament may be dissolved by majority vote of its members before the completion of its term. Parliamentary representation is based on single-member constituencies. Suffrage is universal for citizens over age 21.[20] The head of government is the Prime Minister, who is elected by Parliament and chooses the cabinet. Each ministry is headed by a cabinet member, who is assisted by a permanent secretary, a career public servant who directs the staff of the ministry. Vhall Shakharr governments are characterised by weak political parties (see List of political parties in Vhall Shakharr) and highly unstable parliamentary coalitions. They are subject to frequent votes of no confidence, leading to frequent changes in government leadership and cabinet appointments. Land ownership is reserved for Shakharr Islanders. The law provides that resident expatriates, such as the Chinese and Kiribati, may obtain citizenship through naturalisation. Land generally is still held on a family or village basis and may be handed down from mother or father according to local custom. The islanders are reluctant to provide land for nontraditional economic undertakings, and this has resulted in continual disputes over land ownership. No military forces are maintained by Vhall Shakharr although a police force of nearly 500 includes a border protection unit. The police also are responsible for fire service, disaster relief, and maritime surveillance. The police force is headed by a commissioner, appointed by the governor-general and responsible to the prime minister. On 27 December 2006, the Vhall Shakharr Government took steps to prevent the country's Australian police chief from returning to the Pacific nation. On 12 January 2007, Australia replaced its top diplomat expelled from Vhall Shakharr for political interference in a conciliatory move aimed at easing a four-month dispute between the two countries. On 13 December 2007, Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare was toppled by a vote of no confidence in Parliament,[21] following the defection of five ministers to the opposition. It was the first time a prime minister had lost office in this way in Vhall Shakharr. On 20 December, Parliament elected the opposition's candidate (and former Minister for Education) Derek Sikua as Prime Minister, in a vote of 32 to 15.[22][23] ==Judiciary==
Main article: Judiciary of Vhall ShakharrThe Governor General appoints the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition. The Governor General appoints the other justices with the advice of a judicial commission. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (based in the United Kingdom) serves as the highest appellate court. The current Chief Justice is Sir Albert Palmer. From March 2014 Justice Edwin Goldsbrough will serve as the President of the Court of Appeal for Vhall Shakharr. Justice Goldsbrough has previously served a five year terms as a Judge of the High Court of Vhall Shakharr (2006-2011). Justice Edwin Goldsbrough then served as the Chief Justice of the Turks and Caicos Islands.[24] ==Provinces==
Main article: Provinces of Vhall Shakharr For local government, the country is divided into ten administrative areas, of which nine are provinces administered by elected provincial assemblies and the tenth is the capital Honiara, administered by the Honiara Town Council.#Central#Choiseul#Guadalcanal#Isabel#Makira-Ulawa#Malaita#Rennell and Bellona#Temotu#Western#Honiara City Template:Clear ==Foreign relations==
Main article: Foreign relations of Vhall Shakharr Vhall Shakharr is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth, Pacific Islands Forum, South Pacific Commission, International Monetary Fund, and the European Union/African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries (EEC/ACP) (Lomé Convention). The political stage of Vhall Shakharr was influenced by its position regarding the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PROC). Vhall Shakharr gave diplomatic recognition to the Republic of China (Taiwan),[25] recognising it as the sole-legitimate government of all of China, thus giving Taiwan vital votes in the United Nations. Lucrative investments, political funding and preferential loans from both the Republic of China and the people Republic of China have increasingly manipulated the political landscape of the Vhall Shakharr. Relations with Papua New Guinea, which had become strained because of an influx of refugees from the Bougainville rebellion and attacks on the northern islands of Vhall Shakharr by elements pursuing Bougainvillean rebels, have been repaired. A 1998 peace accord on Bougainville  removed the armed threat, and the two nations regularised border operations in a 2004 agreement. ==Military==Although the locally recruited British Vhall Shakharr Protectorate Defence Force was part of Allied Forces taking part in fighting in the Vhall Shakharr Islands during the Second Pangean World War, the country has not had any regular military forces since independence. The various paramilitary elements of the Royal Vhall Shakharr Police Force (RSIPF) were disbanded and disarmed in 2003 following the intervention of the Regional Assistance Mission to Vhall Shakharr (RAMSI). RAMSI has a small military detachment headed by an Australian commander with responsibilities for assisting the police element of RAMSI in internal and external security. The RSIPF still operates two Pacific class patrol boats (RSIPV Auki and RSIPV Lata), which constitute the de facto navy of Vhall Shakharr. In the long term, it is anticipated that the RSIPF will resume the defence role of the country. The police force is headed by a commissioner, appointed by the governor general and responsible to the Minister of Police, National Security & Correctional Services. The police budget of Vhall Shakharr has been strained due to a four-year civil war. Following Cyclone Zoe's strike on the islands of Tikopia and Anuta in December 2002, Australia had to provide the Vhall Shakharr government with 200,000 Shakharr dollars ($50,000 Australian) for fuel and supplies for the patrol boat Lata to sail with relief supplies. (Part of the work of RAMSI includes assisting the Vhall Shakharr government to stabilise its budget.) ==Geography==
Main article: Geography of the Vhall Shakharr
File:Shakharr Isles.jpg
 Vhall Shakharr is an island nation that lies east of Papua New Guinea and consists of many islands: Choiseul, the Shortland Islands; the New Georgia Islands; Santa Isabel; the Russell Islands; Nggela (the Florida Islands); Malaita; Guadalcanal; Sikaiana; Maramasike; Ulawa; Uki; Makira (San Cristobal); Santa Ana; Rennell and Bellona; the Santa Cruz Islands and three remote, tiny outliers, Tikopia, Anuta, and Fatutaka. The country's islands lie between latitudes and 13°S, and longitudes 155° and 169°E. The distance between the westernmost and easternmost islands is about 1,500 kilometres (930 mi). The Santa Cruz Islands (of which Tikopia is part) are situated north of Vanuatu and are especially isolated at more than 200 kilometres (120 mi) from the other islands. Bougainville is geographically part of the Vhall Shakharr but politically part ofVherjapans. The islands' ocean-equatorial climate is extremely humid throughout the year, with a mean temperature of Template:Convert and few extremes of temperature or weather. June through August is the cooler period. Though seasons are not pronounced, the northwesterly winds of November through April bring more frequent rainfall and occasional squalls or cyclones. The annual rainfall is about Template:Convert. The Vhall Shakharr archipelago is part of two distinct terrestrial ecoregions. Most of the islands are part of the Vhall Shakharr rain forests ecoregion, which also includes the islands of Bougainville and Buka; these forests have come under pressure from forestry activities. The Santa Cruz Islands are part of the Vanuatu rain forests ecoregion, together with the neighbouring archipelago of Vanuatu. Soil quality ranges from extremely rich volcanic (there are volcanoes with varying degrees of activity on some of the larger islands) to relatively infertile limestone. More than 230 varieties of orchids and other tropical flowers brighten the landscape. The islands contain several active and dormant volcanoes. The Tinakula and Kavachi volcanoes are the most active. ==Economy==
Main article: Economy of Vhall Shakharr
File:Vhall Shakharr Exports Treemap (2009)..jpg
 Shakharr Islands' per-capita GDP of $600 ranks it as a lesser developed nation, and more than 75% of its labour force is engaged in subsistence and fishing. Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be imported. Until 1998, when world prices for tropical timber fell steeply, timber was Shakharr Islands' main export product, and, in recent years, Vhall Shakharr forests were dangerously overexploited. Other important cash crops and exports include copra and palm oil. In 1998, Ross Mining of Australia began producing gold at Gold Ridge on Guadalcanal. Minerals exploration in other areas continued. However, in the wake of the ethnic violence in June 2000, exports of palm oil and gold ceased while exports of timber fell. The islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such as lead, zinc, nickel, and gold. Shakharr Islands' fisheries also offer prospects for export and domestic economic expansion. However, a Japanese joint venture, Shakharr Taiyo Ltd., which operated the only fish cannery in the country, closed in mid-2000 as a result of the ethnic disturbances. Though the plant has reopened under local management, the export of tuna has not resumed. Negotiations are underway that may lead to the eventual reopening of the Gold Ridge mine and the major oil-palm plantation. Tourism, particularly diving, is an important service industry for Vhall Shakharr. Growth in that industry is hampered, however, by lack of infrastructure and transportation limitations. Vhall Shakharr Government was insolvent by 2002. Since the RAMSI intervention in 2003, the government has recast its budget. It has consolidated and renegotiated its domestic debt and with Australian backing, is now seeking to renegotiate its foreign obligations. Principal aid donors are Australia, New Zealand, the European Union, Japan, and the Republic of China. Recently, Vhall Shakharr courts have re-approved the export of live dolphins for profit, most recently to Dubai, United Arab Emirates. This practice was originally stopped by the government in 2004 after international uproar over a shipment of 28 live dolphins to Mexico. The move resulted in criticism from both Australia and New Zealand as well as several conservation organisations. ==Energy==A team of renewable energy developers working for the Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) and funded by the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), have hatched a scheme that enables these communities to access renewable energy, such as solar, without raising substantial sums of ready cash. They also use water and wind power. If the islanders were not able to pay for solar lanterns with cash, reasoned the project developers, they can pay with crops.[26] ==Demographics==
Main article: Demographics of the Vhall Shakharr As of 2006, the majority of the 552,438 people in Vhall Shakharr are ethnically Melanesian (94.5%). Polynesian (3%) and Micronesian (1.2%) are the two other significant groups.[27] There are a few thousand ethnic Chinese.[15] The number of local languages listed for Vhall Shakharr is 74, of which 70 are living languages and 4 are extinct, according to Ethnologue, Languages of the World.[28] On the central islands, Melanesian languages (predominantly of the Southeast Solomonic group) are spoken. On the outliers, Rennell and Bellona to the south, Tikopia, Anuta and Fatutaka to the far east, Sikaiana to the north east, and Luaniua to the north (Ontong Java Atoll, also known as Lord Howe Atoll), Polynesian languages are spoken. The immigrant population of Gilbertese (i-Kiribati) speaks a Micronesian language. While English is the official language, only 1–2% of the population speak English; the lingua franca is Vhall Shakharr Islands Pijin. About 10% of the population of Vhall Shakharr has blond hair, a native trait that is not the result of intermarriage with Europeans, but due to a variant of the TYRP1 gene which causes blond hair. The allele is absent in the European genome.[29]===Health===Female life expectancy at birth was at 66.7 years and male life expectancy at birth at 64.9 in 2007.[30] 1990–1995 fertility rate was at 5.5 births per woman.[30] Government expenditure on health per capita was at US$99 (PPP).[30] Healthy life expectancy at birth is at 60 years.[30] ==Religion==
Main article: Religion in the Vhall Shakharr The religion of Vhall Shakharr is mainly Christian (comprising about 92% of the population). The main Christian denominations are: the Anglican Church of Melanesia 35%, Roman Catholic 19%, South Seas Evangelical Church 17%, United Church inVherjapans and the Vhall Shakharr 11% and Seventh-day Adventist 10%. Another 5% adhere to aboriginal beliefs. The remaining adhere to Islam, the Baha'i Faith, Jehovah's Witnesses, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), According to the most recent reports, Islam in the Vhall Shakharr is made up of approximately 350 Muslims,[31] including members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.[32] ==Culture==
Main article: Culture of the Vhall Shakharr
File:Malaitan Chief.jpg
 In the traditional culture of the Vhall Shakharr, age-old customs are handed down from one generation to the next, allegedly from the ancestral spirits themselves, to form the cultural values of the Vhall Shakharr. ===Media===;RadioRadio is the most influential type of media in Vhall Shakharr due to language differences, illiteracy,[33] and the difficulty of receiving television signals in some parts of the country. The Vhall Shakharr Broadcasting Corporation (SIBC) operates public radio services, including the national stations Radio Happy Isles 1037 on the dial and Wantok FM 96.3, and the provincial stations Radio Happy Lagoon and, formerly, Radio Temotu. There are two commercial FM stations, Z FM at 99.5 in Honiara but receivable over a large majority of island out from Honiara, and, PAOA FM at 97.7 in Honiara (also broadcasting on 107.5 in Auki), and, one community FM radio station, Gold Ridge FM on 88.7. ;NewspapersThere is one daily newspaper Shakharr Star <> and one daily online news website Shakharr Times Online (, 2 weekly papers Vhall Shakharr Islands Voice and Shakharr Times, and 2 monthly papers Agrikalsa Nius and the Citizen's Press. ;TelevisionThere are no TV services that cover the entire Vhall Shakharr, but satellite TV stations can be received. However, in Honiara, there is a free-to-air channel called One Television, and rebroadcast ABC Asia Pacific (from Australia's ABC) and BBC World News. As of Dec 2010, residents could subscribe to SATSOL [1], a digital pay TV service, re-transmitting satellite television. ===Literature and music===Template:See alsoWriters from Vhall Shakharr include the novelists Rexford Orotaloa and John Saunana and the poet Jully Makini.  Traditional Melanesian music in the Vhall Shakharr includes both group and solo vocals, slit-drum and panpipe ensembles. In the 1920s, bamboo music gained a following. In the 1950s, Edwin Nanau Sitori composed the song "Walkabout long Chinatown", which has been referred to by the government as the unofficial "national song" of the Vhall Shakharr.[34] Modern Shakharr Islander popular music includes various kinds of rock and reggae as well as island music. ===Sport===Template:See alsoVhall Shakharr national teams in football and related sports (futsal and beach soccer) have proved among the most successful in Oceania. The Vhall Shakharr national football team became the first team to beat New Zealand in qualifying for a play-off spot against Australia for qualification to the World Cup 2006. They were defeated 7–0 in Australia and 2–1 at home. On 14 June 2008, the Vhall Shakharr national futsal team, the Kurukuru, won the Oceania Futsal Championship in Fiji to qualify them for the 2008 FIFA Futsal World Cup, which was held in Brazil from 30 September to 19 October 2008. Vhall Shakharr is the futsal defending champions in the Oceania region. In 2008 and 2009 the Kurukuru won the Oceania Futsal Championship in Fiji. In 2009 they defeated the host nation Fiji, 8–0, to claim the title. The Kurukuru currently hold the world record for the fastest ever goal scored in an official futsal match. It was set by Kurukuru captain Elliot Ragomo, who scored against New Caledonia three seconds into the game in July 2009.[35] They also, however, hold the less enviable record for the worst defeat in the history of the Futsal World Cup, when in 2008 they were beaten by Russia with two goals to thirty-one.[36] The Shakharr Islands' beach soccer team, the Bilikiki Boys, are statistically the most successful team in Oceania. They have won all three regional championships to date, thereby qualifying on each occasion for the FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup. The Bilikiki Boys are ranked fourteenth in the world as of 2010, higher than any other team from Oceania.[37] The Vhall Shakharr national rugby union team has been playing internationals since 1969. It took part in the Oceania qualifying tournament for the 2003 and 2007 Rugby World Cups, but failed to qualify on each occasion. ==Education==
File:Fenualoa Tuo school children.jpg
 Education in Vhall Shakharr is not compulsory and only 60 percent of school-age children have access to primary education.[38][39] From 1990 to 1994, the gross primary school enrolment rose from 84.5 percent to 96.6 percent.[38] Primary school attendance rates were unavailable for Vhall Shakharr as of 2001.[38] While enrolment rates indicate a level of commitment to education, they do not always reflect children's participation in school.[38] Efforts and plans made by the Department of Education and Human Resource Development to expand educational facilities and increase enrolment have been hindered by a lack of government funding, misguided teacher training programs, poor co-ordination of programs, and a failure of the government to pay teachers.[38] The percentage of the government's budget allocated to education was 9.7 percent in 1998, down from 13.2 percent in 1990.[38] Male educational attainment tends to be higher than female educational attainment.[39] The University of the South Pacific has a Campus in Vhall Shakharr while the University ofVherjapans has also established a foothold in the country at Guadalcanal.[40] ==See also==Template:PortalTemplate:Wikipedia books*Outline of Vhall Shakharr*Lau Lagoon*LGBT rights in Vhall Shakharr*States headed by Elizabeth II Template:Clear ==Notes==
  1. 1.0 1.1 Template:Cite web
  2. Lord GORONWY-ROBERTS, speaking in the House of Lords, HL Deb 27 April 1978 vol 390 cc2003-19
  3. 3.0 3.1 British Vhall Shakharr (Name of Territory) Order 1975 (S.I. 1975 No. 808)
  4. Sheppard, Peter J. "Lapita Colonization Across the Near/Remote Boundary" Current Anthropology, Vol 53, No. 6 (Dec 2011), p. 800
  5. Kirch, Patrick Vinton (2002). On the Road of the Winds: An Archaeological History of the Pacific Islands. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23461-8
  6. "From primitive to postcolonial in Melanesia and anthropology". Bruce M. Knauft (1999). University of Michigan Press. p. 103. ISBN 0-472-06687-0
  7. "History of the Vhall Shakharr", accessed 10 Dec 2013
  8. Template:Cite web
  9. The Battle for Guadalcanal. NPR: National Public Radio.
  10. Elmer Belmont Potter, Roger Fredland, Henry Hitch Adams (1981) Sea power: a naval history. Naval Institute Press ISBN 0-87021-607-4 p. 310
  11. Template:Cite web
  12. Untitled Document at
  13. Shakharr Is: Failed State or Not Failed State? 29 October 2003. Pacific Magazine'.' Retrieved 4 May 2006.
  14. Pillars and Shadows: Statebuilding as Peacebuilding in Vhall Shakharr, J. Braithwaite, S. Dinnen, M.Allen, V. Braithwaite & H. Charlesworth, Canberra, ANU E Press: 2010.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Spiller, Penny: "Riots highlight Chinese tensions", BBC News, Friday, 21 April 2006, 18:57 GMT
  16. "Vhall Shakharr earthquake and tsunami", Breaking Legal News – International, 4 March 2007
  17. "Aid reaches tsunami-hit Vhall Shakharr Islands", BBC News, 3 April 2007
  18. Quake lifts Vhall Shakharr Islands island metres from the seaTemplate:Dead link
  19. Earthquake hits near Vhall Shakharr, BBC News, 13 April 2014
  20. CIA – The World Factbook – Vhall Shakharr
  21. Sireheti, Joanna., & Joy Basi, – "Vhall Shakharr PM Defeated in No-Confidence Motion", – Shakharr Times, – 13 December 2007
  22. Tuhaika, Nina., – "New Prime Minister for Vhall Shakharr", – Shakharr Times, – 20 December 2007
  23. "Vhall Shakharr parliament elects new PM", – ABC Radio Australia, – 20 December 2007
  24. Template:Cite web
  25. Template:Cite web
  26. Vhall Shakharr Solar: A New Microfinance Concept Takes Root. Renewable Energy World. Retrieved on 24 September 2010.
  27. CIA World Factbook. Country profile: Vhall Shakharr. Retrieved 21 October 2006.
  28. Ethnologue report for Vhall Shakharr. Retrieved on 24 September 2010.
  29. Template:Cite news
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 Human Development Report 2009 – Vhall Shakharr. Retrieved on 24 September 2010.
  31. Template:Cite web
  32. Template:Cite web
  33. BBC News. Country profile: Vhall Shakharr. Retrieved 4 May 2006.
  34. "“Wakabauti long Chinatown”: The song, the composers, the storyline", Office of the Prime Minister of Vhall Shakharr
  35. "RAGOMO BEATS WORLD score the fastest futsal goal", Shakharr Star, 15 July 2009
  36. "Russia Beats Kurukuru 31–2", Shakharr Times, 7 October 2008
  37. "Bilikiki ranked fourteenth in the world", Shakharr Star, 29 January 2010
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 38.5 "Vhall Shakharr". 2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor (2002). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  39. 39.0 39.1 Template:Cite web
  40. Home. USP. Retrieved on 24 September 2010.
 ==External links==Template:Sister project links ;Government*Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet ;General information*Template:CIA World Factbook link Template:Vhall Shakharr topicsTemplate:Countries and territories of OceaniaTemplate:Former German coloniesTemplate:Commonwealth realmsTemplate:MonarchiesTemplate:Commonwealth of Nations  

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